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Table 5 Frequency and percentage of lifestyle behaviors related to oral health

From: Oral health status and associated lifestyle behaviors in a sample of Iranian adults: an exploratory household survey

Eating or drinking the following foodsAge; n (%)p-value   
18–3536–5051–65MaleFemalep-value
Fresh fruits   0.093  0.037
 Often757 (88.2)613 (85.3)619 (84.4) 953 (84.5)1036 (87.6) 
 Occasionally86 (10.0)90 (12.5)89 (12.1) 149 (13.2)116 (9.8) 
 Seldom15 (1.7)16 (2.2)25 (3.4) 26 (2.3)30 (2.5) 
Biscuits   < 0.001  0.720
 Often399 (46.5)265 (36.9)170 (23.2) 415 (36.8)419 (35.4) 
 Occasionally322 (37.5)324 (45.1)412 (56.2) 515 (45.7)543 (45.9) 
 Seldom137 (32.8)130 (31.1)151 (20.6) 198 (17.6)220 (18.6) 
Sweet cakes, pies, buns   < 0.001  0.646
 Often565 (65.9)406 (56.5)352 (48.0) 657 (58.2)666 (56.3) 
 Occasionally203 (23.7)198 (27.5)282 (38.5) 327 (29.0)356 (30.1) 
 Seldom90 (10.5)115 (16.0)99 (13.5) 144 (12.8)160 (13.5) 
Jam or honey   < 0.001  0.004
 Often413 (48.1)281 (39.1)209 (28.5) 480 (42.6)423 (35.8) 
 Occasionally325 (37.9)331 (46.0)366 (49.9) 473 (41.9)549 (46.4) 
 Seldom120 (14.0)107 (14.9)158 (21.6) 175 (15.5)210 (17.8) 
Chewing gum containing sugar/sweets /candy   < 0.001  0.924
 Often109 (12.7)73 (10.2)69 (9.4) 125 (11.0)126 (10.7) 
 Occasionally308 (35.9)195 (27.1)227 (31.0) 353 (31.3)377 (31.9) 
 Seldom441 (51.4)451 (62.7)437 (59.6) 650 (57.6)679 (57.4) 
Lemonade, Coca Cola or other soft drinks   < 0.001  0.40
 Often231 (26.9)719 (17.9)439 (19.0)< 0.001231 (20.5)208 (17.6) 
 Occasionally365 (30.5)258 (35.9)305 (41.6) 521 (46.2)525 (44.4) 
 Seldom262 (30.5)258 (35.9)305 (41.6) 376 (33.3)449 (38.0) 
Tea with sugar      0.045
 Often538 (62.7)409 (56.9)335 (45.7)< 0.001644 (57.1)638 (43.) 
 Occasionally195 (22.7)167 (23.2)229 (31.2) 294 (26.1)297 (25.1) 
 Seldom125 (14.6)143 (19.9)169 (23.1) 190 (16.8)247 (20.9) 
Coffee with sugar   < 0.001  0.930
 Often288 (33.6)102 (14.2)111 (15.1) 241 (21.4)260 (22.0) 
 Occasionally253 (29.5)265 (36.9)24 (34.0) 375 (33.2)392 (33.2) 
 Seldom317 (36.9)352 (49.0)37 (50.9) 512 (45.4)530 (44.8) 
Tobacco use   < 0.001  < 0.001
 Often55 (6.4)82 (11.4)68 (9.3) 131 (11.6)74 (6.3) 
 Occasionally28 (3.3)17 (2.4)7 (1.0) 28 (2.5)24 (2.0) 
 Seldom775 (90.3)620 (86.5)658 (89.8) 969 (85.9)1084 (91.7) 
Alcohol use   0.409  0.013
 Often0.00.00.0 00 
 Occasionally23 (2.8)20 (3.0)27 (4.0) 44 (4.2)26 (2.3) 
 Seldom794 (97.2)653 (97.0)653 (96.0) 1004 (95.8)1096 (97.7) 
  1. Note: Often (Several times a day, Every day, and Several times a week); Occasionally (Once a week and Several times a month); Seldom (Seldom and never)