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Table 1 Children’s demographic background, clinical characteristics, oral health–related behaviors, perception and self-efficacy

From: Comparison of two caries prevention programs among Thai kindergarten: a randomized controlled trial

GroupLRBHRBHRIp valuea
N (%)N (%)N (%) 
Demographic background
 Child’s sex: boy19 (67.9%)23 (48.9%)25 (54.3%)0.276
 Caregiver age (years): Mean (SD)36.5 (8.3)36.3 (8.5)37.5 (10.3)0.699b
 Relationship to child   0.066
  Father or mother17 (81.0%)39 (92.9%)31 (73.8%) 
  Grandparents/Relatives4 (19.0%)3 (7.1%)11 (26.2%) 
 Education level   0.931
  Primary school or less5 (26.3%)10 (25.6%)12 (29.3%) 
  High school or more14 (73.7%)29 (74.4%)29 (70.7%) 
 Occupation level (mother or father)   0.159
  More stable occupation0 (0%)4 (9.5%)1 (2.4%) 
  Less stable occupation21 (100%)38 (90.5%)41 (97.6%) 
 Monthly family income in Baht ($)   0.554
  Below 10,000 ($318.82)5 (27.8%)12 (29.3%)6 (14.6%) 
  10,001–30,000 ($318.82–956.48)10 (55.6%)20 (48.8%)25 (61.0%) 
  Above 30,000 ($956.48)3 (16.7%)9 (22.0%)10 (24.4%) 
 Prior experience with children: yes19 (95.0%)37 (92.5%)38 (92.7%)0.930
Clinical characteristics Mean (SD)
 dmft score0.79 (3.39)7.30 (4.63)7.00 (4.51)< 0.001b
 dmfs score1.96 (8.86)16.49 (14.80)16.26 (16.03)< 0.001b
 VPI score0.99 (0.74)1.31 (0.81)0.96 (0.55)0.063b
Oral health behaviors
 Brushing at first tooth eruption   0.188
  Yes8 (38.1%)26 (61.9%)21 (50.0%) 
  No13 (61.9%)16 (38.1%)21 (50.0%) 
 Frequency of brushing   0.169
  2 time or less / week3 (14.3%)0 (0%)3 (7.3%) 
  3–5 times /week1 (4.8%)6 (14.3%)5 (12.2%) 
  5 times or more /week17 (81.0%)36 (85.7%)33 (80.5%) 
 Frequency of snacking between meals   0.241
  Never or 1 time / day9 (42.9%)14 (34.1%)15 (35.7%) 
  2 times /day6 (28.6%)11 (26.8%)19 (45.2%) 
  3 times or more /day6 (28.6%)16 (39.0%)8 (19.0%) 
Perception related to dental caries (Mean (SD))
 Perceived susceptibility18.4 (7.3)18.0 (6.8)17.0 (5.5)0.641b
 Perceived severity24.3 (3.1)24.2 (3.6)23.9 (4.9)0.904b
 Perceived benefits21.2 (2.2)21.9 (2.3)21.0 (4.2)0.504b
 Perceived barriers11.5 (3.9)12.5 (3.3)12.3 (4.4)0.648b
Tooth brushing self-efficacy (Mean (SD))7.8 (1.4)7.7 (1.6)7.9 (1.6)0.816b
  1. aχ2 test and bANOVA