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Table 1 General characteristics of the studies included in the systematic review

From: Do probiotics promote oral health during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances? A systematic review

Study Intervention characteristics Outcomes assessed Others
Benic [2019] [29]
University of Otago
New Zealand
EG: Lozenges [Streptococcus salivarius M18 - 3 × 109 CFU/lozenge]
PG: Lozenges without active bacteria
Administration: 1 month
Dosage: 2 lozenges/d
Gingival inflammation:
Gingival index [33]
Adverse effects
Sample size calculation:
Yes, but not for GI
Reliability of measurements:
Not reported
Gizani et al. [2015] [30]
University of Athens
Greece
EG: Lozenges [Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 and Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC PTA 5289–108 bacteria of each strain]
PG: Identical lozenges without active bacteria
Administration: from the time of enrollment until debonding (mean ± SD: 17.0 ± 6.8 months)
Dosage: 1 lozenge/d; after brushing, before bedtime
Enamel demineralization:
Gorelick et al. [34] White Spot Lesion Index
assessed photographically
Adverse effects
Sample size calculation:
Yes
Reliability of measurements:
Yes
Habib [2016] [31]
University of Toronto
Canada
EG: Lozenges [Streptococcus salivarius K12, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus salivarius, Lactobacillus reuteri - 3 × 109 CFU/lozenge]
PG: Identical lozenges without active bacteria
Administration: 4 weeks
Dosage: loading dose - 2 lozenges, 2 times/d (after breakfast and after dinner) for 1w; maintenance dose; 2 lozenges, 1/d (after breakfast) for next 3 w
Gingival inflammation:
Modified Gingival Index [35]
Adverse effects
Sample size calculation:
Yes
Reliability of measurements:
Yes
Kohar et al. [2015] [32]
Trisakti University
Indonesia
EG1: Lozenges [Lactobacillus reuteri - 2 × 108 CFU/lozenge]
EG2: Drink [Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota - 6.5 × 106/bottle]
CG
Administration: 2 weeks
Dosage: 1 lozenge or 65 ml/d, at least 1 h after lunch
Gingival inflammation:
Papillary Bleeding Index [36]
Sample size calculation:
Not reported
Reliability of measurements:
Not reported
  1. CG Control group, without placebo administration, EG Experimental group, h hour, PG Placebo group, w week