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Table 3 Hazard ratios of self-assessed chewing ability and self-assessed number of chewable foods categorized as hard, moderately hard, slightly hard or easy

From: Effects of self-assessed chewing ability, tooth loss and serum albumin on mortality in 80-year-old individuals: a 20-year follow-up study

  Men Women Total Strata model (Strata by sex)
Hazard Ratio (95% CI) P-value Model fit Hazard Ratio (95% CI) P-value Model fit Hazard Ratio (95% CI) P-value Model fit Hazard Ratio (95% CI) P-value Model fit
Self-assessed chewing ability by item response theory
1.17 (1.07–1.27) < 0.001 < 0.001 1.01 (0.92–1.09) 0.937 0.791 1.03 (0.98–1.08) 0.298 0.298 1.07 (1.02–1.14) 0.013 0.013
Self-assessed inability to chew at least one food among the 15 different types of food
1.72 (1.20–2.46) 0.028 0.003 0.85(0.59–1.21) 0.361 0.360 1.10 (0.83–1.35) 0.652 0.625 1.25(0.97–1.62) 0.088 0.088
Self-assessed number of very hard-to-chew foods
 3 Reference 0.001 Reference 0.307 Reference 0.011 Reference 0.002
 2 1.04 (0.72–1.50) 0.830 1.17 (0.82–1.66) 0.401 1.10 (0.86–1.43) 0.445 1.10(0.85–1.42) 0.460
 1 0.89 (0.45–1.75) 0.730 0.93 (0.59–1.46) 0.745 0.82 (0.57–1.20) 0.308 0.93(0.64–1.35) 0.686
 0 2.43 (1.56–3.79) < 0.001 1.40 (0.95–2.06) 0.093 1.55 (1.16–2.07) 0.003 1.72(1.28–2.31) < 0.001
Self-assessed number of moderately hard-to-chew foods
 6 Reference 0.002 Reference 0.444 Reference 0.645 Reference 0.240
 5 1.50 (0.92–2.44) 0.102 0.66 (0.39–1.10) 0.101 0.90 (0.64–1.28) 0.548 1.02(0.71–1.45) 0.921
 4 1.42 (0.85–2.39) 0.184 1.00 (0.62–1.61) 0.994 1.10 (0.77–1.55) 0.594 1.23(0.87–1.76) 0.950
 3 1.34 (0.84–2.12) 0.217 0.72 (0.45–1.16) 0.177 0.89 (0.64–1.23) 0.464 1.01(0.73–1.41) 0.950
 2 1.39 (0.87–2.22) 0.166 1.09 (0.70–1.70) 0.706 1.15 (0.84–1.59) 0.375 1.27(0.92–1.76) 0.140
 1 1.95 (1.10–3.47) 0.023 0.96 (0.60–1.51) 0.845 1.07 (0.76–1.52) 0.697 1.34(0.93–1.92) 0.115
 0 3.82 (2.03–7.18) < 0.001 0.90 (0.52–1.54) 0.690 1.21 (0.81–1.80) 0.365 1.55(1.02–2.36) 0.038
Self-assessed number of slightly hard-to-chew foods
 3 Reference < 0.001 Reference 0.532 Reference 0.098 Reference 0.006
 2 1.76(1.16–2.65) 0.007 0.97(0.69–1.36) 0.853 1.06(0.82–1.38) 0.645 1.22(0.93–1.59) 0.149
 1–0 6.31(3.09–12.87) < 0.001 1.27(0.76–2.14) 0.360 1.53(1.01–2.30) 0.042 1.89(1.24–2.88) 0.003
Self-assessed number of easy-to-chew foods
3 Reference 0.003 Reference 0.116 Reference 0.194 Reference 0.798
0–2 1.72(1.05–2.62) 0.030 0.752(0.53–1.07) 0.117 0.83(0.63–1.10) 0.194 0.96(0.72–1.28) 0.798  
  1. The fifteen foods investigated in this study were classified as hard, moderately hard, slightly hard and easy. Several statistically significant hazard ratios were observed. However, only slightly hard food had a dose-response relationship. When combining the results for 0 and 1, the hazard ratio was 1.757 (1.164–2.652) (p = 0.007). Model fit indicates the p-values calculated by the Wald test