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Table 4 Multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios for mortality

From: Effects of self-assessed chewing ability, tooth loss and serum albumin on mortality in 80-year-old individuals: a 20-year follow-up study

  Men Women Total Strata model (Strata by sex)
  Hazard Ratio (95% CI) P-value Model fit Hazard Ratio (95% CI) P-value Model fit Hazard Ratio (95% CI) P-value Model fit Hazard Ratio (95% CI) P-value Model fit
Serum albumin (mg/dL) 0.44 (0.24–0.81) 0.008 < 0.001 0.51 (0.29–0.89) 0.019 0.110 0.49 (0.32–0.73) 0.001 0.006 0.46 (0.31–0.69) < 0.001 0.001
Chewing ability (IRT) 0.89 (0.81–0.96) 0.006 1.01 (0.94–1.10) 0.746 0.98 (0.92–1.03) 0.439 0.95 (0.90–1.01) 0.077
Number of remaining teeth 0.99 (0.97–1.01) 0.277 1.00 (0.98–1.03) 0.816 1.00 (0.99–1.02) 0.557 0.99 (0.98–1.01) 0.342
Serum albumin (mg/dL) 0.46 (0.25–0.83) 0.011 < 0.001 0.48 (0.27–0.85) 0.012 0.082 0.48 (0.32–0.72) <.0001 0.005 0.45 (0.30–0.68) < 0.001 < 0.001
Chewing ability (IRT) 0.89 (0.81–0.97) 0.006 1.01 (0.94–1.10) 0.744 0.98 (0.93–1.04) 0.556 0.95 (0.89–1.00) 0.070
Edentulous/dentulous 1.37 (0.53–1.89) 0.054 1.15 (0.83–1.59) 0.396 1.08 (0.66–1.33) 0.493 1.29 (1.02–1.59) 0.032
Serum albumin (mg/dL) 0.45 (0.25–0.82) 0.009 0.001 0.51 (0.29–0.90) 0.021 0.099 0.49 (0.32–0.73) 0.001 0.006 0.46 (0.31–0.70) < 0.001 0.001
Chewing ability (inability at least one food) 0.63 (0.43–0.91) 0.014 1.12 (0.77–1.62) 0.547 0.92 (0.71–1.20) 0.548 0.81 (0.62–1.06) 0.131
Number of remaining teeth 0.99 (0.97–1.01) 0.226 1.00 (0.98–1.03) 0.821 1.00 (0.99–1.02) 0.592 0.99 (0.98–1.01) 0.307
Serum albumin (mg/dL) 0.47 (0.26–0.85) 0.012 < 0.001 0.48 (0.27–0.86) 0.013 0.074 0.48 (0.32–0.72) < 0.001 0.006 0.45 (0.30–0.68) < 0.001 < 0.001
Chewing ability (inability at least one food) 0.63 (0.43–0.91) 0.013 1.12 (0.77–1.62) 0.561 0.94 (0.73–1.22) 0.658 0.81 (0.62–1.06) 0.118
Edentulous/dentulous 0.72 (0.52–0.99) 0.041 0.87 (0.64–1.20) 0.405 0.93 (0.75–1.15) 0.478 0.78 (0.62–0.98) 0.029
Serum albumin (mg/dL) 0.45 (0.24–0.83) 0.011 < 0.001 0.51 (0.29–0.89) 0.018 0.193 0.49 (0.32–0.73) 0.001 0.014 0.46 (0.30–0.69) < 0.001 0.002
Slightly hard-to-chew foods (2) 1.68 (1.07–2.65) 0.025 0.94 (0.65–1.36) 0.740 1.04 (0.78–1.38) 0.778 1.17 (0.88–1.56) 0.285
Slightly hard-to-chew foods (0–1) 5.59 (2.18–14.36) < 0.001 1.05 (0.56–1.94) 0.887 1.22 (0.74–2.02) 0.442 1.46 (0.87–2.44) 0.150
Number of remaining teeth 0.98 (0.96–1.00) 0.088 1 .00(0.98–1.03) 0.787 1.00 (0.99–1.02) 0.627 0.99 (0.98–1.01) 0.236
Serum albumin (mg/dL) 0.47 (0.25–0.87) 0.016 < 0.001 0.47 (0.27–0.84) 0.011 0.149 0.48 (0.32–0.72) < 0.001 0.012 0.45 (0.29–0.68) < 0.001 < 0.001
Slightly hard-to-chew foods (2) 1.69 (1.07–2.66) 0.024 0.94 (0.65–1.37) 0.757 1.03 (0.78–1.37) 0.824 1.18 (0.88–1.57) 0.270
Slightly hard-to-chew foods (0–1) 5.49 (2.14–14.07) < 0.001 1.05 (0.57–1.95) 0.870 1.21 (0.73–2.00) 0.465 1.49 (0.89–2.49) 0.132
Edentulous/dentulous 1.47 (1.06–2.00) 0.019 1.15 (0.83–1.59) 0.392 1.09 (0.87–1.33) 0.460 1.30 (1.04–1.61) 0.023
  1. Chewing ability (IRT): Self-assessed chewing ability calculated by the scores of the 3-parameter logistic model of item response theory
  2. Chewing ability (inability to chew at least one food): Self-assessed inability to chew at least one food among the 15 different types of food
  3. Self-assessed number of slightly hard foods that cannot be chewed among 3 foods
  4. Serum albumin levels were statistically significant for all of the models. Masticatory function evaluation based on IRT analysis. Inability to chew at least one food among the 15 different types of food and self-assessed number of slightly hard foods that cannot be chewed among 3 foods were all statistically significant in men. However, they were not significant in women or the total population. They were not statistically significant in the strata model (strata by sex)