Mean values of the intensity of intraoperative and postoperative pain reported in the eligible studies after glide path preparation with different kinematics: M-GP, manual glide path; CR-GP, continuous rotary glide path; R-GP, reciprocating glide path; WGP, without glide path. 1, Pasqualini et al. ; 2, Chen et al. ; 3, Adiguzel et al. ; 4, Tufenkçi et al. ; 5, Kesklin et al. . Unfilled circles represent a significantly higher level of pain than the other groups in the same assessment period and in each study. In the study by Tufenkçi et al. , the only one in which pain level values were expressed as medians, the intensity of intraoperative pain attributed to R-GP was obtained by calculating the mean of R-GP (RP) and R-GP (WOGG) medians, and the intensity of intraoperative pain attributed to CR-GP was obtained by calculating the mean of CR-GP (OP) and CR-GP (PG) medians. The study by Guo et al.  was not included in the graph because it did not report intraoperative pain levels in the studied groups, but only the percentage of pain occurrence: 15-20% for CR-GP and 25-35% for MG-GP, with a statistically significant difference between them.