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Table 1 Socio-demographic backgrounds and other characteristics of the participants at baseline

From: Effectiveness of a family-centered behavioral and educational counselling approach to improve periodontal health of pregnant women: a randomized controlled trial

  Control group (n = 292) Test group (n = 297) Total (n = 589) p-value*
Age (years, mean ± SD) 31.1 ± 4.2 31.2 ± 3.8 31.1 ± 4.0 0.566
Gestational age (weeks, mean ± SD) 14.5 ± 4.2 14.3 ± 2.6 14.4 ± 2.6 0.491
Education Level (%)     0.094
 Up to junior high school 8.6 11.1 9.8
 Senior high school 26.7 19.5 23.1
 Tertiary education 64.7 69.4 67.1
Monthly household income (%) **     0.204
 HK$19,999 or less 18.6 15.2 16.9
 HK$20,000-29,999 21.6 19.6 20.6
 HK$30,000-39,999 15.8 21.3 18.6
 HK$40,000-59,999 25.4 29.4 27.4
 HK$60,000 or more 18.6 14.5 16.5
Dental scheme coverage (%)     0.611
 No 61.6 59.6 60.6
 Yes 38.4 40.4 40.4
Smoking prior to pregnancy (%)     0.014
 No 93.7 98.2 96.0
 Yes 6.3 1.8 4.0
Alcohol use prior to pregnancy (%)     0.322
 No 81.6 85.1 83.4
 Yes 18.4 14.9 16.6
VPI (mean ± SD)(0 ~ 1) 0.20 ± 0.16 0.19 ± 0.16 0.20 ± 0.16 0.588
  > 0.5 (%) 6.8 7.2 6.6
BOP % (mean ± SD)(0 ~ 100%) 59 ± 27 58 ± 26 58 ± 27 0.847
  > 50 (%) 74.7 71.4 73.0
Pocket (%)     0.774
 Absence 89.0 87.9 88.4
 4-5 mm 9.6 11.1 10.4
 6 mm or more 1.4 1.0 1.2
  1. * p-value obtained using Mann-Whitney U test for continuous data and X2 test for categorical data, the comparison of the distribution of smoking was tested by X2 exact test
  2. ** The monthly household income information was missing for two enrolled participants