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Table 3 Distribution of periodontal outcomes and comparison of change between groups over time

From: Effectiveness of a family-centered behavioral and educational counselling approach to improve periodontal health of pregnant women: a randomized controlled trial

  Test Group (n = 188) Control Group (n = 181) #p-value
Baseline (T0) 1st Follow-up (T1) 2nd Follow-up (T2) Baseline (T0) 1st Follow-up (T1) 2nd Follow-up (T2) Time Time *Group Group
Healthy
Perio-conditions (n, %)
4 (2.2%) 10 (5.3%) 33 (17.6%) 4 (2.2%) 9 (5.0%) 12 (6.6%)    
VPI (mean ± SD)(0 ~ 1) § 0.19 ± 0.16a 0.14 ± 0.13b 0.15 ± 0.14b 0.19 ± 0.15a 0.16 ± 0.16b 0.22 ± 0.17a  <0.001  <0.001  0.025
 VPI > 0 (n,%) 157 (83.5%) 138 (73.4%) 141 (75.0%) 149 (82.3%) 130 (71.8%) 151 (73.4%)    
 VPI > 0.5 (n,%) 7 (3.7%) 1 (0.5%) 0 (0%) 4 (2.2%) 4 (2.2%) 9 (5%)    
BOP% (mean + SD)(0 ~ 100%) § 57 ± 27a 46 ± 30b 35 ± 29c 58 ± 27a 52 ± 29b 46 ± 26c < 0.001 0.001 0.014
 BOP> 0 (n,%) 181 (96.3%) 166 (88.3%) 151 (75.0%) 168 (92.8%) 164 (90.6%) 151 (83.4%)    
 BOP> 50% (n,%) 103 (54.8%) 71 (37.8%) 48 (25.5%) 101 (55.8%) 84 (46.4%) 64 (35.4%)    
NPoc (mean + SD)(0 ~ 6) 0.22 ± 0.25a 0.29 ± 0.19b 0.08 ± 0.16c 0.21 ± 0.25a 0.30 ± 0.16b 0.09 ± 0.17c < 0.001 0.293 0.402
 0-3 mm (n,%) 165 (87.8%) 162 (86.2%) 179 (95.2%) 165 (91.2%) 143 (79.0%) 172 (95.0%)    
  > 3 mm (n,%) 23 (12.2%) 26 (13.8%) 9 (4.8%) 16 (8.8%) 38 (21.0%) 9 (5.0%)    
NLoA (mean + SD)(0 ~ 6) 0.23 ± 0.24a 0.22 ± 0.18a 0.12 ± 0.16b 0.21 ± 0.15a 0.21 ± 0.16a 0.10 ± 0.17b < 0.001 0.445 0.352
 0-3 mm (n,%) 167 (88.8%) 168 (89.4%) 179 (95.2%) 165 (91.2%) 154 (85.1%) 172 (95.0%)    
  > 3 mm (n,%) 21 (11.2%) 20 (10.6%) 9 (4.8%) 16 (8.8%) 27 (14.9%) 9 (5.0%)    
  1. VPI proportion of tooth surface with visible dental plaque
  2. BOP% percentage of sites with gingival bleeding
  3. NPoc number of sextants with periodontal pocket > 3 mm
  4. NLoA number of sextants with loss of attachment > 3 mm
  5. Each subscript letter denotes a subset of means that do not differ significantly from each other at the 0.05 level
  6. § p-value obtained using mixed-effect ANOVA
  7. p-value obtained using generalized linear mixed model