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Table 1 Baseline data of patients in the treatment groups, intra- and inter-group comparisons of clinical parameters at baseline, 3-, 6-, 9- and 12-months follow up

From: Clinical effects of probiotic or azithromycin as an adjunct to scaling and root planning in the treatment of stage III periodontitis: a pilot randomized controlled clinical trial

  Baseline (a) 3 months (b) 6 months (c) 9 months (d) 12 months (e) p value (intra-group) Post-hoc (Bonferroni adjustment) Effect size (∆3 months-BL)f Effect size (∆6 months-BL)g Effect size (∆9 months-BL)h Effect size (∆12 months-BL)i ∆3 months-BL ∆6 months-BL ∆9 months-BL ∆12 months-BL
Age (years)                
Probiotic group (n = 16) 46.5 ± 9.3               
Antibiotic group (n = 16) 49.0 ± 7.9               
Placebo group (n = 15) 52.8 ± 7.5               
p value (inter-group) 0.1171               
Gender (M/F) (%)                
Probiotic group (n = 16) 50.0 / 50.0               
Antibiotic group (n = 16) 63.5 / 37.5               
Placebo group (n = 15) 53.3 / 46.7               
p value (inter-group) 0.8150               
Smokers (%)                
Probiotic group (n = 16) 43.8               
Antibiotic group (n = 16) 18.8               
Placebo group (n = 15) 40.0               
p value (inter-group) 0.3440               
CAL (mm)                
Probiotic group (n = 16) 3.8 ± 0.7 3.4 ± 0.6 3.5 ± 0.6 3.5 ± 0.7 3.7 ± 0.6 0.0001 a > b (p = 0.0013) − 0.4 ± 0.3 − 0.3 ± 0.4 − 0.3 ± 0.3 − 0.1 ± 0.3 − 0.4 ± 0.4 − 0.3 ± 0.4 − 0.3 ± 0.4 − 0.1 ± 0.3
        a > c (p = 0.0151)         
        a > d (p = 0.0072)         
        a > e (p = 0.3520)         
Antibiotic group (n = 16) 4.4 ± 0.9 3.8 ± 0.8 4.0 ± 1.0 4.1 ± 1.0 4.1 ± 1.1 0.0001 a > b (p = 0.0013) − 0.4 ± 0.3 − 0.4 ± 0.4 − 0.3 ± 0.4 − 0.3 ± 0.4 − 0.5 ± 0.4 − 0.4 ± 0.4 − 0.3 ± 0.4 − 0.3 ± 0.5
        a > c (p = 0.0013)         
        a > d (p = 0.0262)         
        a > e (p = 0.0262)         
Placebo group (n = 15) 4.7 ± 1.5 4.1 ± 1.4 4.2 ± 1.4 4.3 ± 1.5 4.4 ± 1.5 0.0001 a > b (p = 0.0013) − 0.6 ± 0.4 − 0.5 ± 0.4 − 0.4 ± 0.4 − 0.4 ± 0.3 − 0.6 ± 0.5 − 0.6 ± 0.4 − 0.4 ± 0.5 − 0.4 ± 0.4
        a > c (p = 0.0019)         
        a > d (p = 0.0092)         
        a > e (p = 0.0031)         
p value (inter-group) 0.0823 0.2821 0.3254 0.1589 0.4271        0.2628 0.2906 0.6268 0.1217
PPD (mm)                
Probiotic group (n = 16) 2.7 ± 0.6 2.2 ± 0.4 2.3 ± 0.4 2.2 ± 0.3 2.3 ± 0.3 0.0001 a > b (p = 0.0007) − 0.2 ± 0.1 − 0.2 ± 0.2 − 0.2 ± 0.1 − 0.1 ± 0.2 − 0.5 ± 0.4 − 0.5 ± 0.5 − 0.5 ± 0.4 − 0.4 ± 0.5
        a > c (p = 0.0032)         
        a > d (p = 0.0008)         
        a > e (p = 0.0061)         
Antibiotic group (n = 16) 2.9 ± 0.4 2.2 ± 0.3 2.3 ± 0.3 2.3 ± 0.3 2.3 ± 0.3 0.0001 a > b (p = 0.0006) − 0.2 ± 0.2 − 0.2 ± 0.1 − 0.2 ± 0.1 − 0.2 ± 0.1 − 0.7 ± 0.5 − 0.6 ± 0.3 − 0.6 ± 0.3 − 0.6 ± 0.4
        a > c (p = 0.0004)         
        a > d (p = 0.0004)         
        a > e (p = 0.0008)         
Placebo group (n = 15) 3.2 ± 0.9 2.4 ± 0.5 2.4 ± 0.5 2.5 ± 0.6 2.4 ± 0.55 0.0001 a > b (p = 0.0007) − 0.3 ± 0.2 − 0.3 ± 0.2 − 0.2 ± 0.2 − 0.3 ± 0.2 − 0.8 ± 0.5 − 0.8 ± 0.6 − 0.7 ± 0.6 − 0.7 ± 0.5
        a > c (p = 0.0030)         
        a > d (p = 0.0023)         
        a > e (p = 0.0008)         
p value (inter-group) 0.2436 0.5916 0.4425 0.5391 0.8799        0.2774 0.2266 0.4099 0.1511
BOP (%)                
Probiotic group (n = 16) 49.3 ± 18.1 39.2 ± 14.9 42.1 ± 13.6 42.4 ± 14.6 43.0 ± 12.3 0.0001 a > b (p = 0.0386) − 0.2 ± 0.3 − 0.1 ± 0.4 − 0.1 ± 0.3 − 0.1 ± 0.2 − 10.0 ± 16.6 − 7.1 ± 19.1 − 6.9 ± 13.5 − 6.3 ± 11.2
        a > c (p = 0.1961)         
        a > d (p = 0.0703)         
        a > e (p = 0.0494)         
Antibiotic group (n = 16) 57.4 ± 10.2 41.9 ± 10.9 44.1 ± 13.5 48.1 ± 14.1 42.3 ± 13.3 0.0005 a > b (p = 0.0022) − 0.3 ± 0.2 − 0.2 ± 0.3 − 0.2 ± 0.3 − 0.3 ± 0.2 − 14.7 ± 11.1 − 13.2 ± 14.9 − 9.2 ± 15.0 − 15.0 ± 12.6
        a > c (p = 0.0052)         
        a > d (p = 0.0437)         
        a > e (p = 0.0023)         
Placebo group (n = 15) 52.5 ± 12.6 40.8 ± 13.3 42.3 ± 15.3 45.2 ± 13.1 40.8 ± 11.5 0.0001 a > b (p = 0.0026) − 0.2 ± 0.2 − 0.2 ± 0.3 − 0.1 ± 0.3 − 0.2 ± 0.2 − 11.8 ± 11.2 − 10.2 ± 13.3 − 6.7 ± 16.9 − 11.7 ± 10.0
        a > c (p = 0.0107)         
        a > d (p = 0.1981)         
        a > e (p = 0.0026)         
p value (inter-group) 0.2744 0.8560 0.9035 0.5170 0.8703        0.6122 0.5741 0.8760 0.0990
PI (%)                
Probiotic group (n = 16) 54.6 ± 18.8 24.7 ± 11.3 25.2 ± 13.1 28.1 ± 14.6 25.1 ± 12.8 0.0003 a > b (p = 0.0004) − 0.5 ± 0.3 − 0.5 ± 0.4 − 0.5 ± 0.3 − 0.5 ± 0.4 − 29.9 ± 17.2 − 29.3 ± 20.4 − 26.5 ± 19.4 − 29.4 ± 21.2
        a > c (p = 0.0004)         
        a > d (p = 0.0006)         
        a > e (p = 0.0011)         
Antibiotic group (n = 16) 58.6 ± 18.8 25.2 ± 14.0 32.6 ± 15.7 31.8 ± 14.8 32.7 ± 14.0 0.0001 a > b (p = 0.0007) − 0.6 ± 0.3 − 0.5 ± 0.3 − 0.5 ± 0.3 − 0.5 ± 0.3 − 32.6 ± 16.5 − 26.0 ± 15.0 − 26.9 ± 14.4 − 26.0 ± 16.3
        a > c (p = 0.0005)         
        a > d (p = 0.0004)         
        a > e (p = 0.0008)         
Placebo group (n = 15) 56.1 ± 9.4 32.4 ± 13.9 27.6 ± 12.5 26.8 ± 13.3 35.8 ± 18.3 0.0030 a > b (p = 0.0012) − 0.4 ± 0.3 − 0.5 ± 0.2 − 0.5 ± 0.3 − 0.4 ± 0.3 − 23.7 ± 15.7 − 28.9 ± 13.9 − 29.1 ± 15.3 − 20.3 ± 16.6
        a > c (p = 0.0015)         
        a > d (p = 0.0010)         
        a > e (p = 0.0018)         
p value (inter-group) 0.7774 0.2022 0.4261 0.6122 0.1789        0.3197 0.8377 0.8951 0.3817
  1. Data presented as mean ± SD or number (%). CAL clinical attachment loss, PPD probing pocket depth, BOP bleeding on probing, PI Plaque index
  2. fEffect size of (∆3 months‐BL) was calculated by delta mean change from month 3 to baseline over standard deviation of baseline. gEffect size of (∆6 months‐BL) was calculated by delta mean change from month 6 to baseline over standard deviation of baseline. hEffect size of (∆9 months‐BL) was calculated by delta mean change from month 9 to baseline over standard deviation of baseline. iEffect size of (∆12 months‐BL) was calculated by delta mean change from month 12 to baseline over standard deviation of baseline
  3. Intra-group comparison by Friedman test (p < 0.05) and Bonferroni-corrected Wilcoxon signed rank test (p < 0.0125). Statistical significant in bold
  4. Inter-group comparison by Fisher's exact test, ANOVA and Kruskal Wallis test (p < 0.05)