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Table 2 Clinical attachment loss (CAL) and probing pocket depth (PPD) in moderate (4–6 mm) and deep sites (≥ 7 mm) at baseline, 3-months and 12-months follow up

From: Clinical effects of probiotic or azithromycin as an adjunct to scaling and root planning in the treatment of stage III periodontitis: a pilot randomized controlled clinical trial

  Baseline (a) 3 months (b) 12 months (c) p value (intra-group) Post-hoc (Bonferroni adjustment) Effect size (∆3 months-BL)a Effect size (∆12 months-BL)b ∆3 months-BL ∆12 months-BL
Moderate sites (CAL)          
Probiotic group (n = 16) 5.6 ± 0.6 6.0 ± 1.0 6.1 ± 1.2 0.0238 a > b (p = 0.1208) 0.4 ± 0.9 0.5 ± 0.9 0.4 ± 0.9 0.5 ± 0.9
      a > c (p = 0.0747)     
Antibiotic group (n = 16) 5.9 ± 1.0 6.4 ± 1.3 6.4 ± 1.4 0.0018 a < b (p = 0.0171) − 0.04 ± 0.7 0.5 ± 1.0 0.7 ± 0.9 0.5 ± 1.0
      a > c (p = 0.0340)     
Placebo group (n = 15) 6.1 ± 1.3 6.0 ± 1.7 6.5 ± 1.6 0.0006 a > b (p = 0.7333) 0.7 ± 1.0 0.4 ± 1.0 − 0.04 ± 0.7 0.4 ± 1.0
      a > c (p = 0.1398)     
p value (inter-group) 0.4031 0.6160 0.7649      0.0857 0.9483
Deep sites (CAL)          
Probiotic group (n = 16) 8.4 ± 1.8 9.3 ± 2.0 10.8 ± 3.6 0.0498 a > b (p = 0.7127) 0.05 ± 0.9 0.8 ± 1.1 0.1 ± 1.7 1.6 ± 2.2
      a > c (p = 0.1756)     
Antibiotic group (n = 16) 9.5 ± 2.1 10.4 ± 2.4 11.2 ± 1.7 0.0498 a > b (p = 0.6858) 0.09 ± 0.6 0.2 ± 0.6 0.2 ± 1.1 0.4 ± 1.1
      a > c (p = 0.5930)     
Placebo group (n = 15) 9.5 ± 2.1 11.1 ± 2.0 10.6 ± 2.1 0.3386 a > b (p = 0.2489) 0.4 ± 1.5 0.4 ± 0.8 0.9 ± 2.9 0.8 ± 1.6
      a > c (p = 0.1763)     
p value (inter-group) 0.4837 0.3254 0.9420      0.8257 0.6535
Moderate sites (PPD)          
Probiotic group (n = 16) 4.5 ± 0.3 4.4 ± 0.5 4.3 ± 0.3 0.0006 a > b (p = 0.1788) − 0.2 ± 1.9 − 0.8 ± 1.4 − 0.06 ± 0.5 − 0.2 ± 0.4
      a > c (p = 0.0464)     
Antibiotic group (n = 16) 4.5 ± 0.2 4.4 ± 0.3 4.3 ± 0.2 0.0040 a > b (p = 0.0287) − 0.6 ± 0.8 − 0.8 ± 0.7 − 0.2 ± 0.2 − 0.2 ± 0.2
      a > c (p = 0.0010)     
Placebo group (n = 15) 4.6 ± 0.3 4.2 ± 0.2 4.2 ± 0.3 0.0280 a > b (p = 0.0007) − 1.4 ± 0.9 − 1.3 ± 1.2 − 0.4 ± 0.2 − 0.4 ± 0.3
      a > c (p = 0.0012)     
p value (inter-group) 0.6098 0.3097 0.7395      0.4489 0.3449
Deep sites (PPD)          
Probiotic group (n = 16) 7.5 ± 1.0 7.4 ± 0.9 7.9 ± 1.2 0.1054 a > b (p = 0.0947) − 0.4 ± 0.3 − 0.1 ± 0.3 − 0.4 ± 0.3 − 0.1 ± 0.3
      a > c (p = 0.5716)     
Antibiotic group (n = 16) 7.5 ± 0.7 7.7 ± 0.7 7.1 ± 0.2 0.1054 a > b (p = 0.6845) 0.1 ± 1.4 − 0.2 ± 0.1 0.08 ± 1.1 − 0.2 ± 0.08
      a > c (p = 0.1088)     
Placebo group (n = 15) 7.8 ± 0.7 7.6 ± 0.9 7.2 ± 0.2 0.6747 a > b (p = 0.3991) − 0.6 ± 1.8 − 1.0 ± 1.0 − 0.4 ± 1.4 − 0.8 ± 0.8
      a > c (p = 0.0510)    0.7364 0.2588
p value (inter-group) 0.3767 0.2995 0.1862       
  1. Data presented as mean ± SD; BL: Baseline. CAL: Clinical attachment loss. PPD: Probing pocket depth
  2. aEffect size of (∆3 months‐BL) was calculated by delta mean change from month 3 to baseline over standard deviation of baseline. bEffect size of (∆12 months‐BL) was calculated by delta mean change from month 12 to baseline over standard deviation of baseline
  3. Intra-group comparison by Friedman test (p < 0.05) and Bonferroni-corrected Wilcoxon signed rank test (p < 0.025). Statistical significant in bold
  4. Inter-group comparison by ANOVA and Kruskal Wallis test (p < 0.05)