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Table 2 Multilevel multivariate generalized estimation equation (logistic regression analysis) for relationship of patient- and clinic-level variables with tooth loss

From: A multilevel analysis of the importance of oral health instructions for preventing tooth loss: The 8020 Promotion Foundation Study of Japanese Dental Patients

  Dependent variable: Tooth loss (absence = 0, presence = 1)
Crude OR (95%CI) p value Adjusted OR (95%CI) p value
Patient-level variables
 Age (years) 1.05 (1.04–1.06)  < 0.001 1.03 (1.02–1.04)  < 0.001
 Number of teeth 0.88 (0.87–0.90)  < 0.001 0.93 (0.91–0.95)  < 0.001
 Number of decayed teeth 1.09 (1.02–1.16) 0.011 1.04 (0.97–1.12) 0.253
 Mean PPD (mm) 1.76 (1.58–1.96)  < 0.001 1.46 (1.26–1.68)  < 0.001
 BOP (%) 1.01 (1.01–1.01)  < 0.001 1.00 (1.00–1.00) 0.917
 Gender
  Male 1   1  
  Female 0.70 (0.58–0.84)  < 0.001 1.21 (0.92–1.60) 0.177
 Smoking
  Never 1   1  
  Past 1.60 (1.31–1.97)  < 0.001 1.55 (1.19–2.01) 0.001
  Current 1.66 (1.22–2.27) 0.001 1.67 (1.13–2.47) 0.011
 Diabetes mellitus
  No 1   1  
  Yes 1.67 (1.19–2.34) 0.003 1.07 (0.75–1.53) 0.727
 Tooth brushing frequency (times per day)
  ≥ 3 1   1  
  2 1.37 (1.12–1.66) 0.002 1.09 (0.87–1.35) 0.456
  ≤ 1 1.78 (1.34–2.37)  < 0.001 1.11 (0.81–1.53) 0.525
 Use of secondary oral hygiene productsa
  Yes 1   1  
  No 1.16 (0.95–1.41) 0.149 0.83 (0.65–1.06) 0.134
 Bleeding during tooth brushing
  No 1   1  
  Yes 1.57 (1.31–1.87)  < 0.001 1.51 (1.23–1.85)  < 0.001
 Eating between meals
  No 1   1  
   Sometimes 0.66 (0.51–0.85) 0.001 0.77 (0.58–1.02) 0.067
  Everyday 0.57 (0.43–0.75)  < 0.001 0.75 (0.53–1.05) 0.094
 Reason for dental visit
  Treatment 1   1  
  Both treatment and maintenance 0.78 (0.61–0.99) 0.044 0.74 (0.56–0.98) 0.038
  Maintenance 0.43 (0.35–0.52)  < 0.001 0.57 (0.45–0.71)  < 0.001
 Education level (years)
  ≥ 13 1   1  
  ≤ 12 0.62 (0.52–0.74)  < 0.001 0.95 (0.77–1.18) 0.643
 Economic status
  Low 1   1  
  Middle 0.97 (0.77–1.23) 0.820 0.98 (0.75–1.29) 0.881
  High 1.08 (0.79–1.47) 0.639 1.11 (0.76–1.63) 0.582
 Working status
  Yes 1   1  
  No 1.89 (1.58–2.26)  < 0.001 1.18 (0.93–1.50) 0.180
Clinic-level variables
 Age of dental clinic director
  30s or 40s 1   1  
  50s 1.37 (1.11–1.68) 0.003 1.28 (1.00–1.64) 0.052
  60s or over 1.43 (1.09–1.86) 0.009 1.28 (0.93–1.75) 0.126
 Gender of dental clinic director
  Male 1   1  
  Female 0.84 (0.57–1.22) 0.350 0.73 (0.48–1.14) 0.164
 Number of dental hygienists
  0 1   1  
  1–3 0.92 (0.73–1.16) 0.470 0.99 (0.77–1.27) 0.922
  ≥ 4 0.62 (0.45–0.85) 0.003 0.68 (0.50–0.99) 0.047
 Time for oral health instruction (min)
  0 1   1  
  1–9 0.97 (0.75–1.27) 0.850 1.03 (0.76–1.40) 0.861
  10–19 0.75 (0.57–0.99) 0.039 0.79 (0.57–1.08) 0.140
  ≥ 20 0.65 (0.48–0.88) 0.006 0.69 (0.50–0.96) 0.028
  1. OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; PPD, probing pocket depth; BOP, breeding on probing
  2. aDental floss or interdental brush