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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies. Variables were listed in this systematic review (including:study design, patient demographics, methodology, number of adverse events and length of follow-up). Outcome difference is reported only between adjunctive CHX gel to SRP and SRP alone

From: Adjunctive subgingival application of Chlorhexidine gel in nonsurgical periodontal treatment for chronic periodontitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis

AdministrationStudyDesignParticipantsMethodologyAEFollow-up (m)
N (C/T)Inclusion criteriaSDageDescription of GelCHX Gel Application  
Application at selected sitesFaramarzi M et al. (2017) [26]P68 (34/34)at least eight teeth with PD 4-8 mm2-DM30–60 yearsXAN-CHX 1.5% CHX gelone time after 2nd SRP (baseline, 2 week after 1st SRP)/3,6
 Phogat M et al. (2014) [27]S30 (30/30)at least 3 nonadjacent interproximal sites with PD 4-8 mmno30–50 yearsXAN-CHX 1.5% CHX gelone time at baseline, 10 days and 20 days/1,3
 Jain M et al. (2013) [28]S30 (30/30)2 sites located on the same side PD between 5 to 7 mmno30–60 yearsXAN-CHX 1.5% CHX gelone time at baseline/1.5,3,6
 Chitsazi MT et al. (2013) [29]S20 (20/20)one site per quadrant with PD ≥4 mm and BOP (+)nomean 46.5 yearsXAN-CHX 1.5% CHX gelone time at baseline01,3
 Chauhan AS et al. (2013) [30]P40 (20/20)at least 8 teeth with PD 4-8 mmno30–65 yearsXAN-CHX 1.5% CHX gelone time at baseline/1,3
 Matesanz P et al. (2013) [31]P (placebo)22 (12/10)at least 16 teeth and at least 3 teeth per quadrant,4–10 pockets with PPD > 4 mm and BOP(+), or at a programmed supportive visitnoelder than 30 yearsXAN-CHX 1.5% CHX gelone time at baseline01,3,6
 Verma A et al. (2012) [32]S46 (46/46)at least two non-adjacent interproximal sites with PD5-8 mm and BOP(+)no30–65 yearsXAN-CHX 1.5% CHX gelone time 1 month after SRP/1,3
 Kranti K et al. (2010) [33]S (placebo)10 (10/10)at least 4 periodontal pockets with PPD 5-8 mmyes25–65 earsXAN-CHX 1.5% CHX gelone time at baseline/3,6
 Paolantonio M (2009) [34]S98 (98/98)at least two teeth with PD ≥5 mm and BOP (+)no24–58 yearsXAN-CHX 2.5% CHX gelone time at baseline/3,6
 Gupta R et al. (2008) [35]S30 (30/30)at least three teeth, (at least one tooth apart), with PPD 5-8 mm and BOP (+)no25–75 yearsXAN-CHX 1.5% CHX gelone time at baseline/1,3
 lecic J et al. (2016) [10]S5 (5/5)at least two bilateral PPD ≥ 5 mmno21–52 years0.5% CHX gelthree times within 10 min/1,3
 unsal E et al. (1994) 11P15 (8/7)at least 3 teeth in each quadrant with 2 sites with PPD ≥ 4 mm and BOP(+)no30–57 years1% CHX gelOne time at baseline/3
 Oosterwaal PJM et al. (1991) [12]S (placebo)10 (10/10)at least 4 interdental PPD 7-9 mm in single rooted teeth and BOP(+)no33–62 years2% CHX gel3 times within 10 min at baseline/1,3,6
Full-mouth applicationFonseca DC et al. (2015) [17]P30 (15/15)mild to moderate chronic periodontitis, at least 18 natural teethyes35–60 years1% CHX gelone time at baseline/3,6
 Santos VR et al. (2013) [18]P (placebo)37 (18/19)at least 15 teeth, 30% of the sites with concomitant PD and CAL > 4 mm2-DM37–75 years1% CHX gel3 times within 10 min at baselineT:17 C:123,6,12
 swierkot et al. (2009) [19]P18 (9/9)at least 20 teeth with at least six sites PPD ≥5 mm and BOP(+)no28–63 years1% CHX gelone time at baseline01,2,4,8
 Quirynen M et al. (2006) [2]P28 (14/14)at least 18 teeth, at least 2 multi-rooted and/or 2 single-rooted teeth in the first quadrant, at least 6 sites PPD 6 mm, radiographic bone loss≥25%no30–75 years1% CHX gelthree times within 10 min at first sessecion, second session, and 1-week follow-up/2,4,8
  1. Studies varied according to the design type of studies, the inclusion or exclusion of patients with systemic disease, different concentration and composition of chlorhexidine gel and different timing and frequency of CHX gel application. Adverse events and follow-up period were recorded
  2. P Intersubject parallel study, S Intrasubject split-mouth study, N Number, T Test group, C Control group, SD Systemic disease, 2-DM Diabetes mellitus type 2, XAN Xanthan gum, CHX Chlorhexidine, XAN-CHX Xanthan-based chlorhexidine, min Minutes, AE Adverse events, m Month/months