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Table 1 Summary characteristics of included studies

From: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the role of sugar-free chewing gum on Streptococcus mutans

Study citation Intervention
Daily frequency/amount/chew-time
Participant characteristics Duration of follow up Study design Control group Effect size (95% CI)
Hoerman [16] Xylitol for 10 weeks Chewed 5 times a day for 10 min N = 30 dental students 10 weeks RCT No gum − 0.31 (− 1.21, 0.59)
Hildebrandt and Sparks [17] Xylitol for 3 months Chewed 3 times a day for 5 min (after each meal) N = 151; adults 3 months RCT No gum − 0.70 (− 1.09, − 0.31)
Thaweboon et al. [18] 55% xylitol and 100% xylitol for 90 days Chewed 3 times a day for 5 min N = 91 schoolchildren aged 10–12 90 days Other-controlled trial No gum − 0.57 (− 1.00, − 0.13)
Makinen et al. [19] Xylitol and d-glucitol for 6 months Chewed 4 times a day for 5 min N = 123, kindergarten children 6 months RCT No gum − 0.40 (− 0.84, 0.04)
Wang et al. [20] Sugar free gum for 14 days Chewed 5 times a day for 10 min N = 40 adults 2 weeks RCT No gum − 0.86 (− 1.48, − 0.24)
Haresaku et al. [21] Xylitol and malatol for 6 months Chewed 3 times a day for 5 min (after each meal) N = 128 adults 6 months Patient preference non-randomised trial No gum − 0.10 (− 0.55, 0.34)
Calgar et al. [22] Xylitol 21 days Chewed 3 times a day for 10 min N = 60 adults (age range 21–24 years) 3 weeks RCT Placebo gum − 1.33 (− 2.18, − 0.48)
Campus et al. [23] Xylitol for 9 months Chewed 5 times a day for 5 min N = 176 children aged 7–9 9 months RCT Placebo gum − 0.01 (− 0.32, 0.31)
Hildebrandt et al. [24] Xylitol for 3 months Chewed 3 times a day for 5 min N = 105 adults 3 months RCT No gum − 0.76 (− 1.23, − 0.28)
Seki et al. [25] Xylitol gum over 3 months Chewed 4 times/day (after breakfast, lunch, snacks, and dinner) for 5 min N = 161 children aged 3–4 years 9 months RCT Control gum − 0.33 (− 0.64, − 0.02)
Alamoudi et al. [26] and Hanno et al. [27] Xylitol gum over 3 months Chewed 3 times a day for 5 min N = 34 mother–child dyads 18 months RCT Fluoride varnish − 0.66 (− 1.65, 0.32)
Al-Haboubi et al. [28] Xylitol gum over 6 months Chewed 2 times daily for 15 min N = 186 adults aged over 60 years 6 months RCT No gum − 0.23 (− 0.56, 0.10)
Ghassemi et al. [29] Xylitol for 4 weeks Chewed 3 times a day for 5 min N = 50 adults (female university students) 4 weeks RCT Probiotic − 0.18 (− 0.74, 0.37)