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Table 2 The associations between general characteristics, oral health behavior, and sleep habits with symptoms of oral diseases among Korean youths (n = 54,766) : N(%)

From: Association between sleep habits and symptoms of oral disease in adolescents: the 2017 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey

Symptoms Toothache or throbbing Toothache when eating Gingival pain and bleeding Pain in tongue and cheek inside mouth Halitosis
Gender
 Male 5255 (19.6) 8850 (32.8) 4511 (16.6) 2521 (9.5) 6176 (22.6)
 Female 7613 (28.1) 10,758 (39.5) 6095 (22.4) 3696 (13.9) 6024 (22.1)
 p-value < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.218
School levels
 Middle 5400 (20.5) 8900 (34.0) 4733 (17.9) 2794 (10.9) 6000 (23.0)
 High 7468 (26.3) 10,708 (37.8) 5873 (20.6) 3423 (12.2) 6200 (21.8)
 p-value < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.004
Academic grades
 High 5012 (23.4) 7858 (36.3) 4228 (19.5) 2644 (12.5) 4580 (21.1)
 Middle 3507 (22.5) 5378 (34.5) 2905 (18.5) 1685 (11.0) 3236 (20.6)
 Low 4349 (25.4) 6372 (37.3) 3473 (20.2) 1888 (11.2) 4384 (25.4)
 p-value < 0.001 < 0.001 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
Economic status
 High 4572 (21.5) 7266 (33.9) 3985 (18.6) 2387 (11.3) 4136 (19.1)
 Middle 5979 (23.8) 9002 (35.9) 4793 (18.9) 2762 (11.2) 5580 (22.1)
 Low 2317 (30.0) 3340 (43.2) 1828 (23.8) 1068 (14.1) 2484 (32.4)
 p-value < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
Frequency of tooth brushinga
 1 163 (30.6) 225 (42.8) 149 (29.8) 83 (16.0) 252 (47.2)
 ≥ 2 12,705 (23.7) 19,383 (36.0) 10,457 (19.4) 6134 (11.6) 11,948 (22.1)
 p-value < 0.001 0.001 < 0.001 0.001 < 0.001
Flossing habits
 Used 1644 (23.6) 2590 (37.1) 1482 (21.3) 871 (12.7) 1506 (21.0)
 Not used 11,224 (23.8) 17,018 (35.9) 9124 (19.2) 5346 (11.5) 10,694 (22.5)
 p-value 0.825 0.077 < 0.001 0.003 0.004
Sleep types
 A 5609 (20.2) 9015 (32.4) 4823 (17.3) 2644 (9.7) 5991 (21.5)
 B 7259 (27.1) 10,593 (39.5) 5783 (21.5) 3573 (13.4) 6209 (23.1)
 p-value < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
Sleep durationb
 < 6 5841 (28.2) 8288 (40.1) 4665 (22.4) 2887 (14.1) 4792 (23.1)
 6 ≤  < 7 3180 (23.7) 4948 (36.9) 2599 (19.2) 1509 (11.5) 3054 (22.8)
 7 ≤  < 8 2403 (20.5) 3857 (33.0) 2032 (17.4) 1126 (9.7) 2557 (21.8)
 ≥ 8 1444 (16.4) 2515 (28.3) 1310 (14.7) 695 (8.1) 1797 (20.2)
 p-value < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
Sleep quality
 High 2227 (16.5) 3691 (27.1) 2059 (15.0) 1093 (8.2) 2518 (18.3)
 Middle 3791 (21.5) 6071 (34.3) 3178 (17.9) 1756 (10.1) 3759 (21.2)
 Low 6850 (29.6) 9846 (42.5) 5369 (23.1) 3368 (14.7) 5923 (25.4)
 p-value < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
  1. The data are determined from chi-square test (p < 0.05)
  2. aTimes a day
  3. bHours