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Table 5 Univariate and multivariate analysis of Axis-II components of Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (DC/TMD) assessing the risk indicators for the development of any TMD

From: Evaluation of temporomandibular disorders among dental students of Saudi Arabia using Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (DC/TMD): a cross-sectional study

Parameter Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
Odds ratio (CI) P value Adjusted odds ratio (CI) P value
GCPSa 0 Reference Reference
 ≥ 1 1.94 (0.45–2.36)  < 0.001 1.68 (0.28–1.92) 0.01
JFLS-20b item (any item ≥ 5 = 1) 0 Reference Reference
1 1.68 (0.30–2.15) 0.006 1.45 (0.10–1.85) 0.008
GADc (sum score 0–3) 0 Reference Reference
 ≥ 1 1.75 (0.32–1.96) 0.02 1.55 (0.22–1.84) 0.04
PHQ-9d (sum score 0–4) 0 Reference
 ≥ 1 1.64 (0.33–1.78) 0.56
OBCe (sum score ˃16 = 1) 0 Reference Reference
1 2.42 (0.48–3.10)  < 0.001 2.10 (0.35–2.56)  < 0.001
  1. P values mentioned in bold are statistically significant; CI confidence interval
  2. Sum scores categorized (as per the Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders) are as follows:
  3. aGraded chronic pain scale (GCPS)—0-IV; grade I or II—low pain intensity without interference in the daily living; Grade III or IV—High pain and high interference, or moderate to severe disability
  4. bJaw functional limitation scale (JFLS)—any Item ≥ 5 = 1; remaining = 0
  5. cGeneralized anxiety disorder (GAD-7): 0 = no, 1 = mild, 2 = moderate and 3 = severe anxiety, respectively
  6. dPatient health questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9): 0 = no, 1 = mild, 2 = moderate, 3 = moderately severe and 4 = severe depression, respectively
  7. eOral Behaviour checklist—sum score ˃16 = 1; remaining = 0