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Table 3 Associations between D3MFS (decayed, missing, filled surfaces) in the caries surface-based susceptibility hierarchy groups and their potential determinants, according to univariable and multivariable linear regression models with robust confidence intervals (95%CI) and significance (p values) among 35–74-year-olds (N = 946)

From: Fluoride in the drinking water and dental caries experience by tooth surface susceptibility among adults

Determinants Caries experience (D3MFS)
Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4
Crude β
value (95%CI)
Adjusted β
value
(95%CI)
Crude β
value
(95% CI)
Adjusted β
value
(95% CI)
Crude β
value
(95%CI)
Adjusted β
value
(95%CI)
Crude β
value
(95% CI)
Adjusted β
value
(95%CI)
Socio-demographic characteristics         
Fluoride level in drinking water Lower-level < 0.7 ppm Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
Higher-level ≥ 0.7 ppm − 0.15, 0.194
(− 0.38; 0.09)
− 0.23, 0.035
(− 0.44; − 0.001)
− 0.13, 0.615
(− 0.61; 0.36)
− 0.44, 0.034
(− 0.82; − 0.07)
− 0.49, 0.267
(− 1.4; 0.38)
− 1.14, 0.002
(− 1.88; − 0.41)
− 3.21, 0.098
(− 7.02; 0.59)
− 6.28, 0.001
(− 9.29; − 3.30)
Age/10 years Continuous 0.29, 0.0001
(0.22; 0.36)
0.28, 0.001
(0.20; 0.36)
2.00, 0.0001
(1.05; 1.35)
1.20, 0.001
(1.05; 1.35)
2.47, 0.0001
(2.21; 2.74)
2.42, 0.001
(2.16; 2.66)
12.29, 0.0001
(11.21; 13.36)
12.05, 0.001
(10.84; 13.23)
Sex Males Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
  Females 0.47, 0.0001
(0.28; 0.65)
0.50, 0.001
(0.30; 0.72)
1.17, 0.0001
(0.76; 1.59)
1.28, 0.001
(0.86; 1.73)
1.61, 0.0001
(0.86; 2.35)
1.80, 0.001
(1.11; 2.47)
3.94, 0.018
(0.67; 7.22)
4.98, 0.003
(2.36; 7.95)
Education Higher: 4 years or more Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
Higher: < 4 years 0.36, 0.009
(0.09; 0.64)
0.12, 0.408
(− 0.16; 0.40)
0.89, 0.005
(0.28; 1.51)
− 0.12, 0.691
(− 0.73; 0.49)
2.38, 0.0001
(1.30; 3.47)
0.36, 0.426
(− 0.62; 1.35)
7.91, 0.001
(3.18; 12.65)
− 2.09, 0.231
(− 5.58; 1.42)
Secondary school or less 0.50, 0.001
(0.22; 0.79)
0.23, 0.141
(− 0.11; 0.57)
1.46, 0.0001
(0.82; 2.10)
0.24, 0.403
(− 0.45; 0.93)
3.80, 0.0001
(2.67; 4.93)
1.23, 0.025
(0.06; 2.31)
16.17, 0.0001
(11.25; 21.09)
2.80, 0.158
(− 1.55; 6.93)
Residency Peri-urban/rural Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
  Urban − 0.33, 0.001
(− 0.52; − 0.13)
− 0.12. 0.283
(− 0.09; 0.30)
− 0.73, 0.002
(− 1.19; − 0.28)
− 0.08, 0.690
(− 0.50; 0.33)
− 1.67, 0.0001
(− 2.48; − 0.87)
− 0.37, 0.317
(− 1.08; 0.31)
− 6.75, 0.0001
(− 10.27; − 3.23)
− 1.35, 0.406
(− 4.43; 1.71)
Oral health-related behaviors   
Tooth brushing frequency Twice a day or more Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
Once a day or less 0.07, 0.446
(− 0.11; 0.24)
0.10, 0.283
(− 0.9; 0.30)
0.32, 0.116
(− 0.08; 0.72)
0.40, 0.028
(0.05; 0.75)
0.78, 0.030 (0.07; 1.49) 0.63, 0.060
(− 0.02; 1.30)
4.24, 0.007
(1.15; 7.33)
2.21, 0.094
(− 0.71; 4.96)
Using fluoridated toothpaste Yes Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
No 0.06, 0.668
(− 0.20; 0.31)
− 0.04, 0.708
(− 0.27; 0.18)
0.49, 0.095
(− 0.09; 1.07)
0.09, 0.704
(− 0.41; 0.59)
1.02, 0.053
(− 0.01; 2.05)
0.11, 0.808
(− 0.72; 0.94)
8.68, 0.0001
(4.21; 13.16)
4.23, 0.029
(0.52; 8.21)
Don’t know 0.10, 0.302
(− 0.09; 0.30)
0.03, 0.767
(− 0.15; 0.21)
0.17, 0.469
(− 0.28; 0.61)
− 0.12, 0.569
(− 0.52; 0.28)
0.51, 0.208
(− 0.29; 1.31)
− 0.09, 0.820
(− 0.71; 0.52)
4.46, 0.010
(1.10; 8.02))
1.73, 0.230
(− 0.98; 4.66)
Consumption of sugar- containing foods Low Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
Moderate − 0.01, 0.994
(− 0.21; 0.21)
0.09, 0.406
(− 0.11; 0.29)
− 0.08, 0.784
(− 0.56; 0.41)
0.23, 0.307
(− 0.21; 0.60)
− 0.23, 0.595
(− 1.10; 0.63)
0.45, 0.226
(− 0.27; 1.12)
0.50, 0.794
(0− 3.27; 4.27))
4.06, 0.007
(0.72; 7.17)
High 0.07, 0.586
(− 0.17; 0.30)
0.23, 0.067
(0.00; 0.46)
− 0.04, 0.894
(− 0.57; 0.50)
0.55, 0.038
(0.02; 1.08)
− 0.17, 0.734
(− 1.12; 0.79)
0.96, 0.031
(0.07; 1.76)
− 0.49, 0.818
(− 4.65; 3.67)
4.67, 0.011
(1.33; 8.10)
Last dental visit 12 months ago or less Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
More than 12 months ago 0.04, 0.682
(− 0.16; 0.24)
0.11, 0.302
(− 0.08; 0.31)
0.02, 0.925
(− 0.43; 0.47)
0.35, 0.119
(− 0.07; 0.80)
− 0.22, 0.591
(− 1.02; 0.58)
0.49, 0.174
(− 0.17; 1.09)
− 5.50, 0.002
(− 8.97; − 2.04)
− 1.87, 0.230
(− 4.97; 0.91)
R2    0.102   0.247 0.310 0.310   0.387
  1. Ref, reference category