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Table 1 Characteristics of participants by gender

From: Dental caries among Finnish teenagers participating in physical activity and diet intervention: association with anthropometrics and behavioural factors

  All (n = 202) Girls (n = 96) Boys (n = 106) P-value
Group (%)     0.702
Intervention 64 63 65  
Control 36 37 35  
Age (years), mean (SD) 16.5 (0.5) 16.4 (0.5) 16.5 (0.5) 0.378
Socioeconomics     
Parental education1 (%)     0.028
Vocational 13 12 14  
Polytechnic 41 51 32  
University 46 37 54  
Household income2 (%)     0.132
 ≤ 29,999€ 7 5 9  
30,000–59,000€ 23 29 87  
 ≥ 60,000€ 70 67 73  
Health-related behaviour     
Tooth brushing frequency3 (%)     0.003
At least twice a day 73 83 64  
Less than twice a day 27 17 36  
Brushing device3 (%)     0.332
Electronic toothbrush 48 44 52  
Toothbrush 52 56 48  
Interdental cleaning frequency3 (%)     0.533
At least once a day 21 23 20  
Less than once a day 79 77 80  
Smoking4 (%)     0.615
Never smoker 92 93 91  
Current of former 8 7 9  
Electronic cigarette smoking4 (%)      < 0.001
Never smoker 83 95 71  
Current or former 17 5 29  
Use of snuff4 (%)      < 0.001
Never 86 95 77  
Current or former 14 5 23  
Alcohol consumption5 (%)     0.924
None or quitted 86 86 86  
Yes 14 14 14  
Diet     
Use of sugar sweetened beverages7 (%)      < 0.001
Once a week or less often 68 83 54  
2–3 times a week 22 14 31  
4–7 times a week 10 3 15  
Number of main meals per day8 (%)     0.878
 < 3 78 78 79  
3 22 22 21  
Number of snacks per day8 (%)     0.253
 < 2 43 37 47  
2 or 3 42 44 41  
 > 3 15 19 12  
Energy intake (kcal/d), mean (SD) 1841 (511.1) 1655.9 (419.6) 2022.7 (529.2)  < 0.001
Carbohydrate intake (g/day), mean (SD) 216.5 (66.6) 200.9 (55.0) 231.8 (73.4) 0.001
Sucrose intake (g/day), mean (SD) 48.2 (25.8) 46.3 (23.3) 50.1 (28.0) 0.317
Carbohydrate (E%), mean (SD) 47.2 (7.2) 48.7 (6.2) 45.8 (7.8) 0.007
Sucrose (E%), mean (SD) 10.5 (5.1) 11.2 (5.1) 9.9 (5.2) 0.082
Anthropometrics     
Body height (cm), mean (SD) 171.2 (8.4) 165.7 (5.8) 176.1 (7.3)  < 0.001
Body weight (kg), mean (SD) 61.3 (11.9) 57.3 (8.3) 64.8 (13.5)  < 0.001
Waist circumference (cm), mean (SD) 72.7 (8.8) 69.7 (6.1) 75.4 (10.0)  < 0.001
Body mass index (kg/m2), mean (SD) 20.8 (3.3) 20.9 (2.9) 20.8 (3.7) 0.962
Body mass index SDS9, mean (SD)  − 0.1 (1.0) 0.01 (0.8)  − 0.2 (1.1) 0.204
Body fat (%), mean (SD) 22.6 (9.9) 28.4 (6.6) 17.3 (9.4)  < 0.001
  1. P‐values are from independent samples T-test for variables with normal distributions or Mann‐Whitney test for variables with skewed distribution and chi‐square test for categorical variables. Bolded values indicate statistically significant associations (P < 0.05)
  2. Missing data: 1 n = 16, 2 n = 20,3 n = 15, 4 n = 2, 5 n = 1, 6 n = 15, 7 n = 1, 8 n = 16
  3. 9 standard deviation score