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Table 3 Distribution of participants according to number of decayed teeth (DT) (ICDAS3+) by intervention group, gender, socioeconomics, oral health-related behaviour and anthropometrics

From: Dental caries among Finnish teenagers participating in physical activity and diet intervention: association with anthropometrics and behavioural factors

  DT
0 (n = 149)  ≥ 1 (n = 53) p-value
Group    0.343
Intervention 76 24  
Control 70 30  
Gender    0.795
Boys 75 25  
Girls 73 27  
Socioeconomics
Parental education (%)1    0.769
Vocational 75 25  
Polytechnic 73 27  
University 78 22  
Household income (%)2    0.773
 ≤ 29,999€ 69 31  
30,000–59,000€ 79 21  
 ≥ 60,000€ 75 25  
Health-related behavior
Tooth brushing frequency (%)3    0.066
At least twice a day 77 23  
Less often 63 37  
Smoking (%)4    0.846
Never 74 26  
Current or occasional 76 24  
Electronic cigarette smoking (%)4    0.373
Never 72 27  
Current or occasional 80 20  
Use of snuff (%)4    0.038
Never 71 29  
Current or occasional 90 10  
Smoking or use of snuff (%)    0.202
Both 89 11  
Smoking 63 38  
Snuff 90 10  
Neither 72 28  
DIET    
Use of sugar sweetened beverages (%)5    0.033
Once a week or less often 79 21  
2–3 times a week 69 31  
4–7 times a week 53 47  
Number of main meals per day (%)6    0.714
 < 3 75 25  
3 73 28  
Number of snacks per day (%)6    0.865
 < 2 75 25  
2–3 73 27  
 > 3 79 21  
Carbohydrate intake (E%)7    
Continuous, mean (SD) 46.6 (7.4) 49.0 (6.3) 0.057
In tertiles (%)    0.147
Lowest (range 25.7–44.5) 84 16  
Middle (range 44.6–49.7) 73 27  
Highest (range 48.7–66.1) 69 31  
Sucrose intake (E%)7 10.3 (5.4) 11.1 (4.5) 0.185
Continuous, mean (SD)    
In tertiles(%)    0.381
Lowest (range 1.5–7.8) 82 18  
Middle (range 7.9–11.8) 73 27  
Highest (range 11.9–29.1) 70 30  
Body composition    
Waist (cm), mean (SD) 72.5 (8.2) 73.3 (10.4) 0.875
Weight (kg), mean (SD) 61.2 (11.4) 61.5 (13.4) 0.911
Body Mass Index    
Continuous, mean (SD) 20.8 (3.1) 21.0 (4.0) 0.963
In tertiles (%)    0.808
Lowest (range 14.9–19.6) 33 34  
Middle (range 19.6–21.2) 35 30  
Highest (range 21.2–38.7) 32 36  
BMI-SDS 8    
Continuous, mean (SD)  − 0.08 (0.9)  − 0.08 (1.1) 0.874
In tertiles (%)    0.980
Lowest (range − 3.0 to − 0.4) 75 25  
Middle (range − 0.4 to 0.2) 74 26  
Highest (range 0.2–2.8) 73 27  
Body fat (%), mean (SD) 21.9 (9.6) 24.5 (10.5) 0.102
Previous caries experience
Number of decayed teeth at baseline, mean (SD)    
Initial or decayed lesions in deciduous or permanent teeth 1.1 (1.5) 1.7 (2.0) 0.052
Only decayed lesions in deciduous or permanent teeth 0.03 (0.2) 0.04 (0.3) 0.745
Number of decayed teeth at 2 year follow-up, mean (SD)    
Initial or decayed lesions in deciduous or permanent teeth 1.2 (1.6) 1.7 (2.0) 0.095
Only decayed lesions in deciduous or permanent teeth 0.1(0.5) 0.2 (0.5) 0.164
  1. P-values are from independent samples T-test for variables with normal distributions (Carbohydrate intake (E%), Sucrose intake (E%) and BF (%)) or Mann‐Whitney test for variables with skewed distribution and chi‐squared test for categorical variables. Bolded values indicate statistically significant associations (P < 0.05)
  2. Missing data: 1 n = 20, 2 n = 16, 3 n = 15 4 n = 2, 5 n = 1, 6 n = 16, 7 n = 18, 8 = standard deviation score