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Table 3 Background characteristics, time and intervention (AMI or campaign) as predictors of intervention mechanisms (GLMM*/GEE**)

From: Evaluating mechanisms of change in an oral hygiene improvement trial with older adults

  Model   Estimate Std. error p value Confidence interval
Upper Lower
1 Self-efficacy Intervention × time (AMI with Campaign—as ref) 0.199 0.074 0.007 0.053 0.34
Race (Hispanics vs Blacks—as ref) 0.302 0.066 < .0001 0.17 0.43
2 Perceived risk Income (More than $900 vs Less than or equal to $900—as ref) − 0.206 0.071 0.004 − 0.34 − 0.06
Age (62 and above vs 62 or less—as ref) 0.278 0.074 0.0002 0.13 0.42
Oral health rating (Good and Excellent vs Poor and Fair—as ref) 0.355 0.069 < .0001 0.21 0.49
Diagnoses that interfere with daily life activities (1 + vs 0—as ref) − 0.162 0.072 0.02 − 0.30 − 0.01
CES-D (4 + vas 0–4—as ref) − 0.135 0.071 0.05 − 0.27 0.005
3 Fears of oral health diseases Time (time 1 vs Baseline—as ref) 0.245 0.084 0.003 0.080 0.41
Age (62 and above vs 62 or less—as ref) 0.293 0.105 0.005 0.085 0.500
Diagnosis that interfere with daily life activities (1 + vs 0—as ref) − 0.250 0.102 0.015 − 0.45 − 0.04
CES-D (4 + vas 0–4—as ref) − 0.197 0.100 0.051 − 0.39 0.001
Race (Hispanics vs Blacks—as ref) − 0.595 0.129  < .0001 − 0.85 − 0.339
4 Oral health intentionality Time (time 1 vs Baseline—as ref) 0.0752 0.026 0.005 0.022 0.127
Gender (Female vs Male—as ref) 0.0805 0.034 0.0213 0.012 0.14
Oral health rating (Good and Excellent vs Poor and Fair—as ref) 0.091 0.035 0.01 0.021 0.16
Diagnosis that interfere with daily life activities (1 + vs 0—as ref) − 0.101 0.036 0.006 − 0.173 − 0.028
Race (White and others vs Blacks—as ref) − 0.165 0.054 0.002 − 0.271 − 0.05
5 Locus of control Intervention × time (AMI with Campaign as ref) 0.187 0.090 0.03 0.009 0.36
Education (Above high school vs Less than high school—as ref) 0.406 0.071 < .0001 0.264 0.54
Diagnoses that interfere with daily life activities (1 + vs 0—as ref) − 0.174 0.065 0.008 − 0.304 − 0.04
6 Oral health norm-belief of oral health hygiene and behavior Intervention (AMI with Campaign—as ref) − 0.099 0.043 0.02 − 0.186 − 0.013
Time (1 vs Baseline—as ref) 0.103 0.039 0.008 0.026 0.181
Oral health rating (Good and Excellent vs Poor and Fair—as ref) 0.061 0.031 0.04 0.0007 0.123
7 Worries of oral health diseases Time (1 vs Baseline—as ref) 0.18 0.060 0.001 0.069 0.30
Age (62 and above vs 62 or less—as ref) 0.17 0.084 0.03 0.0081 0.34
Diagnoses that interfere with daily life activities (1 + vs 0—as ref) − 0.20 0.082 0.01 − 0.36 − 0.040
CES-D (4 + vas 0–4—as ref) − 0.21 0.081 0.007 − 0.37 − 0.057
Race (Hispanics vs Blacks—as ref) − 0.45 0.104 < .0001 − 0.66 − 0.25
8 Sugar intake Time (1 with baseline—as ref) − 0.2767 0.04396 < .0001 − 0.3632 − 0.1902
9 Brushing frequency Intervention * time (AMI with Campaign—as ref) − 0.7117 0.2857 0.0127 − 1.2716 − 0.1519
Gender (Female vs Male—as ref) − 0.480 0.226 0.03 − 0.92 − 0.03
Income (More than $900 vs Less than or equal to $900—as ref) 0.741 0.238 0.001 0.27 1.20
Diagnosis that interfere with daily life activities (1 + vs 0—as ref) 0.703 0.247 0.004 0.21 1.18
Race (Hispanics vs Blacks—as ref) − 0.126 0.289 < .0001 − 2.33 − 1.17
10 Flossing frequency Intervention * time (AMI with Campaign- as ref) − 0.5160 0.2455 0.0356 − 0.9972 − 0.0347
Gender (Female vs Male—as ref) − 0.567 0.178 0.001 − 0.91 − 0.21
Diagnoses that interfere with daily life activities (1 + vs 0—as ref) 0.368 0.188 0.05 − 0.001 0.73
Time − 0.4216 0.1668 0.0115 − 0.7485 − 0.0946
  1. *This table reports on only significant predictors. Absence of time and condition for a mediator means non-significance
  2. **Models generated with GEE statistic for categorical variables