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Table 1 Sample characteristics, percent with no dental visits (95% CI) (weighted)

From: Use of oral health care services in the United States: unequal, inequitable—a cross-sectional study

  Number Percent (weighted) With no dental visits (%) Difference (95% CI)
Total 4745   39.7 -
Socio-demographic characteristics     
Age (years)     
 30 to < 40 979 21.6 48.1 Ref
 40 to < 50 941 21.4 35.6 − 12.5 (− 16.9, − 8.2)
 50 to < 60 924 22.6 42.2 − 5.9 (− 10.4, − 1.4)
 60 to < 70 949 18.4 30.4 − 17.7(− 22.0, − 13.5)
 70+ 952 16.0 40.8 − 7.4 (− 11.8, − 2.9)
Gender     
 Female 2458 52.4 36.2 Ref
 Male 2287 47.6 43.4 7.2 (4.4–10.0)
Race/ethnicity     
 Non-Hispanic White 1574 65.9 36.0 Ref
 Non-Hispanic Black 991 10.8 46.5 10.5 (6.6–14.5)
 Hispanic 1466 14.0 53.5 17.5 (14.0–20.9)
 Other 714 9.3 37.4 1.4 (− 0.0, 0.1)
Main language     
 English 3758 90.6 38.0 Ref
 Other 987 9.4 55.2 17.2 (13.7–20.6)
Country of birth     
 US born 3057 81.0 38.6 Ref
 Other countries born 1687 19.0 44.0 5.4 (2.4–8.3)
US citizen     
 Yes 3955 90.8 38.0 Ref
 No 778 9.2 55.7 17.6 (13.8–21.4)
Disparity variables     
Education     
 College 1177 33.2 22.0 Ref
 Some college 1333 31.3 41.3 19.3 (15.8–22.9)
 High school 1004 20.3 50.5 28.4 (24.5–32.3)
 Less than high school 1226 15.2 60.3 38.3 (34.7–41.9)
Income     
 ≥ $100,000 739 27.9 18.8 Ref
 $45,000 to < 100,000 1280 32.8 38.6 19.7 (16.1–23.4)
 $20,000 to < $45,000 1320 24.2 50.0 31.1 (27.5–34.8)
 < $20,000 1050 15.0 60.9 42.1 (38.0–46.2)
Need     
Self-rated oral health     
 Excellent/very good 1458 39.3 23.3 Ref
 Good 1535 31.4 38.2 15.0 (11.7–18.2)
 Fair/poor 1746 29.3 63.2 39.9 (36.8–43.0)
Impaired oral health     
 Never 3088 69.0 34.6 Ref
 Hardly ever 1657 31.0 50.9 16.2 (13.8–21.4)