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Table 2 Basal characteristics of the study sample of older adults

From: Oral health condition and development of frailty over a 12-month period in community‐dwelling older adults

  Total Non-frail Frail p-value*
  % (n) % (n) % (n)
  100 (539) 82.0 (442) 18.0 (97)  
Sex     
Men 44.9 (242) 46.2 (204) 39.2 (38) .211
Women 55.1 (297) 53.8 (238) 60.8 (59)  
Age (years)     
 ≥ 80 5.8 (31) 4.1 (18) 13.4 (13)  < .001
70–79 27.0 (146) 25.3 (112) 35.1 (34)  
60–69 67.2 (362) 70.6 (312) 51.5 (50)  
Marital status     
Widowed 18.2 (98) 18.3 (81) 17.5 (17) .743
Single 19.8 (107) 19.2 (85) 22.7 (22)  
Married/free union 62.0 (334) 62.4 (276) 59.8 (58)  
Education level     
None 3.0 (16) 3.2 (14) 2.1 (2) .093
1–6 years 25.4 (137) 23.5 (104) 34.0 (33)  
 ≥ 7 years 71.6 (386) 73.3 (324) 63.9 (62)  
Salaried work     
No 59.9 (323) 59.3 (262) 62.9 (61) .511
Yes 40.1 (216) 40.7 (180) 37.1 (36)  
Living alone     
Yes 12.1 (65) 12.0 (53) 12.4 (12) .917
No 87.9 (474) 88.0 (389) 87.6 (85)  
Comorbidities     
 ≥ 2 18.6 (100) 18.3 (81) 19.6 (19) .541
1 27.1 (146) 26.3 (116) 30.9 (30)  
0 54.3 (293) 55.4 (245) 49.5 (48)  
Cognitive impairment     
Yes 17.4 (94) 16.1 (71) 23.7 (23) .072
No 82.6 (445) 83.9 (371) 76.3 (74)  
Depression     
Yes 3.5 (19) 2.0 (9) 10.3 (10)  < .001
No 96.5 (520) 98.0 (433) 89.7 (87)  
Malnutrition     
Yes 2.8 (15) 2.7 (12) 3.1 (3) .838
No 97.2 (524) 97.3 (430) 96.9 (94)  
Use of oral health care services in the past 12-months     
Yes 36.4 (196) 66.3 (293) 51.5 (50) .006
No 63.6 (343) 33.7 (149) 48.5 (47)  
  1. *Chi-squared test