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Table 4 Summary of the main individual results of the eligible studies included in the qualitative analysis that used only artificial fluoridated water

From: External control of fluoridation in the public water supplies of Brazilian cities as a strategy against caries: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study [ref] Total samples (n) Value of F used as parameter (in ppmF) Mean fluoride concentration in the period (in ppmF) Standard deviation of fluoride concentration (in ppmF) Samples within the standard used (n/%) Samples outside the standard used (n/%)
Maia et al. [31] 48 0.6–0.8 0.45 + 2 (4%) < 0.6 ppm = 30 (62.5%)
> 0.8 ppm = 16 (33.5%)
Lima et al. [36] 764 0.6–0.9 0.68 + 8 (50%)** 8 (50%)#
Moura et al. [26] 180 0.60–0.80 0.623 0.168 32 (53.3%)** < 0.6 ppm = 22 (36.7%)#
> 0.8 ppm = 6 (10%)#
Piva et al. [37] 104 0.6–0.9 0.66 + 66 (61.1%) 38 (38.9%)##
Amaral et al. [32] 630 0.6–0.8 0.7 + 535 (84.92%) < 0.6 ppm = 18 2.86%)
> 0.8 ppm = 77 (12.2%)
Silva et al. [30] 576 0.6–0.8 0.24 (Teresina)
0.27 (Floriano)
0.17 (Parnaíba)
0.07 (Teresina)
0.06 (Floriano)
0.03 (Parnaíba)
25 (4.3%) < 0.6 ppm = 551 (95.7%)
> 0.8 ppm = 0
Panizzi et al. [38] 989 0.7–1.0 (I)
0.7–0.9 (II)
0.65–0.94 (III)
0.89 + 455 (46%)
316 (32%)
425 (43%)
534 (54%)##
673 (68%)##
564 (57%)##
Saliba et al. [33] 864 0.6–0.8 + + 669 (77.4%) < 0.6 ppm = 171 (13.5%)
> 0.8 ppm = 24 (2.7%)
Peixoto et al. [29] 72 0.6–0.8 (I)
0.55–0.84 (II)
0.55 0.19 I—34 (47.2%)
II—46 (63.9%)
I—< 0.6 ppm = 32 (44.4%)
> 0.8 ppm = 6 (8.3%)
II—< 0.55 ppm = 26 (36.1%)
> 0.84 ppm = 0
Moimaz et al. [34] 6862 0.6–0.8 0.64 0.28 3671 (53.5%) < 0.6 ppm = 2084 (30.4%)
> 0.8 ppm = 1107 (16.1%)
Assaf et al. [35] 179 0.65–0.94 + + 87 (48.6%) < 0.65 ppm = 92 (51.4%)
> 0.94 ppm = 0
Bergamo et al. [17] 252 0.55–0.84 0.77 + 217 (86%) 35 (14%)##
Brito et al. [39] 121 0.6 a 0.9 (I)
0.65 a 0.94 (II)
0.57 0.12 I—48 (39.7%)
II—26 (21.4%)
I—< 0.6 ppm = 73 (60.3%)
> 0.9 ppm = 0 (0%)
II—< 0.65 ppm = 95 (78.6%)
> 0.94 = 0 (0%)
Kuhnen et al. [40] 737 0.7 a 1.0 (I)
0.65 a 0.94 (II)
+ + I—432 (58.6%)
II—377 (51.2%)
I—< 0.7 ppm = 49 (6.7%)
> 1.0 ppm = 256 (34.7%)
II—< 0.65 ppm = 29 (3.8%)
> 0.94 = 331 (45%)
  1. + Not mentioned by the author
  2. #The result was given by the number of collection sites and not by the number of samples
  3. ##Did not separate between < 0.6 or > 0.9
  4. The data extracted referred only to the water artificially supplemented with fluoride