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Table 1 Sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics of 224 individuals with juvenile idiopathic arthritis and 224 controls, aged 4–16 years

From: Dental caries in children and adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis and controls: a multilevel analysis

Variable Individuals with JIA (n = 224) Control group (n = 224) p value
Educational level of caregivers, n (%)
 Mother    
  High school/vocational school 75 (35.4) 54 (26.1) 0.04
  University/college 137 (64.6) 153 (73.9)
 Father
  High school/vocational school 121 (57.9) 87 (42.6) < 0.01
  University/college 88 (42.1) 117 (57.4)
Share household with, n (%)
 Two caregivers in the household* 172 (79.6) 187 (84.2) 0.21
 Only one caregiver in the household 44 (20.4) 35 (15.8)
Frequency of toothbrushing, n (%)
 Once a day or less/do not know 51 (23.6) 49 (22.2) 0.72
 Twice a day, or more 165 (76.4) 172 (77.8)
Frequency of tooth flossing during the last 3 months, n (%)
 Daily or more 19 (8.8) 19 (8.6) 0.94
 Several times weekly or less/do not know 196 (91.2) 201 (91.4)
Toothpaste, n (%)
 Fluoride toothpaste 204 (94.4) 212 (96.4) 0.34
 Fluoride-free toothpaste /do not know 12 (5.6) 8 (3.6)
During toothbrushing, gingival bleeding occurs, n (%)
 Sometimes or more/do not know 122 (57.3) 103 (46.6) 0.03
 Never 91 (42.7) 118 (53.4)
During toothbrushing, pain or discomfort occurs, n (%)
 Yes/do not know 25 (11.7) 22 (10.0) 0.55
 No 188 (88.3) 199 (90.0)
  1. *Also includes living across two households, given two caregivers in both households. Some participants did not respond to the questionnaires. Chi-squared test level of significance p < 0.05