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Table 3 Multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression analyzing the relationships among health status, sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics, and oral variables with the dichotomized outcome variable presence of caries (d1-5 fs/D1-5FS > 0 or = 0)

From: Dental caries in children and adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis and controls: a multilevel analysis

  Unadjusted analysis Adjusted analysis
OR (95% CI) p value OR (95% CI) p value
Health status
 Control group 1 Ref 1 Ref
 JIA group 1.07 (0.70–1.65) 0.77 1.02 (0.62–1.66) 0.95
Educational level of mother
 University/college 1 Ref 1 Ref
 High school/vocational school 1.93 (1.20–3.09) 0.01 2.07 (1.24–3.46) 0.01
Educational level of father
 University/college 1 Ref   
 High school/vocational school 1.38 (0.87–2.19) 0.17   
Household structure
 Two caregivers* 1 Ref   
 One caregiver 1.36 (0.78–2.37) 0.29   
Toothpaste
 Fluoride toothpaste 1 Ref   
 Fluoride-free toothpaste** 1.11 (0.40–3.08) 0.84   
Frequency of toothbrushing
 Twice a day or more 1 Ref   
 Once a day or less ** 1.35 (0.81–2.25) 0.26   
Frequency of tooth flossing during the last 3 months
 Daily or more 1 Ref   
 Several times weekly or less** 0.98 (0.44–2.18) 0.96   
During toothbrushing, gingival bleeding occurs
 Never 1 Ref 1 Ref
 Sometimes or more ** 1.69 (1.09–2.64) 0.02 1.52 (0.94–2.48) 0.09
During toothbrushing, pain or discomfort occurs
 No 1 Ref   
 Yes** 3.11 (1.62–5.98) < 0.01   
Jaw
 Mandible 1 Ref   
 Maxilla 1.01 (0.84–1.20) 0.96   
Side
 Right side 1 Ref   
 Left side 1.01 (0.84–1.21) 0.91   
Surface
 A: Buccal 1BDE < 0.01* 1BDE < 0.01***
 B: Distal 0.45 (0.31–0.65)ADE < 0.01 0.40 (0.27–0.61)ADE < 0.01
 C: Lingual 0.66 (0.46–0.93)DE 0.02 0.63 (0.43–0.91)DE 0.01
 D: Mesial 1.67 (1.23–2.26)ABCE < 0.01 1.66 (1.21–2.29)ABCE < 0.01
 E: Occlusal 4.86 (3.65–6.45)ABCD < 0.01 5.06 (3.76–6.83)ABCD < 0.01
ICC 0.52   0.56  
  1. JIA, juvenile idiopathic arthritis; ICC, intra-class correlation coefficient
  2. *Also includes living across two households with two caregivers in each household. **The answer option “Do not know” is assigned to the variable associated with negative impact on oral health. *Overall p value. Surfaces statistically significant in post-hoc analyses are marked with superscript letters. Scheffe adjusted p values in post-hoc analyses p < 0.05