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Table 2 Binary and multivariable logistic regression presenting the odds of perceiving specialists as ‘not completely collegial’

From: What non-clinical factors influence the general dentist–specialist relationship in Canada?

  Binary Multivariable
Odds ratio* (95% CI) p Odds ratio** (95% CI) p
Socio-demographic factors     
Age     
 40 years and younger (reference) 1.00   1.00  
 41–50 1.67 (1.04, 2.69) 0.035 1.14 (0.67, 1.92) 0.628
 51–60 1.25 (0.76, 2.05) 0.376 0.95 (0.54, 1.67) 0.849
 > 61 0.87 (0.49, 1.55) 0.643 0.68 (0.35, 1.34) 0.265
Gender     
 Male (reference) 1.00   1.00  
 Female 0.65 (0.45, 0.94) 0.023 0.88 (0.57, 1.35) 0.551
Gross annual income     
 < $149,000 (reference) 1.00   1.00  
 $150,000–$249,000 0.75 (0.45, 1.24) 0.260 0.72 (0.42, 1.22) 0.220
 > $250,000 1.91 (1.25, 2.93) 0.003 1.48 (0.91, 2.40) 0.112
Relationship status     
 Single/non-married (reference) 1.00    
 Married 0.93 (0.57, 1.52) 0.781   
 Divorced/separated 1.37 (0.61, 3.04) 0.444   
Primary income-earner in the household     
 Yes (reference) 1.00   1.00  
 No 0.66 (0.37, 1.17) 0.151 0.84 (0.44, 1.60) 0.596
 My partner and I contribute equally 0.42 (0.24, 0.73) 0.002 0.47 (0.26, 0.84) 0.011
Number of dependents     
 0 (reference) 1.00    
 1 0.61 (0.33, 1.13) 0.115   
 2–4 1.44 (0.93, 2.23) 0.102   
 5 or more 2.10 (0.91, 4.88) 0.083   
Professional factors     
Type of practitioner     
 General dentist (reference) 1.00   1.00  
 General dentist with GPR/AEGD 1.73 (1.06, 2.81) 0.027 1.63 (0.96, 2.75) 0.071
Place of initial training     
 Canadian dental faculty (reference) 1.00    
 American dental faculty 0.75 (0.35, 1.61) 0.454   
 International dental faculty 1.10 (0.71, 1.71) 0.659   
Years of practice in Canada     
 < 14 years (reference) 1.00    
 15–29 1.01 (0.68, 1.51) 0.943   
 > 30 0.71 (0.44, 1.13) 0.145   
Presence of student loans     
 No, I do not have any student loans (reference) 1.00   1.00  
 Yes 0.63 (0.44, 0.89) 0.010 0.58 (0.40, 0.85) 0.006
Hours of CE in a year     
 Less than 30 (reference) 1.00    
 More than 30 1.08 (0.71, 1.64) 0.724   
Involvement in a study club     
 No (reference) 1.00    
 Yes 1.37 (0.96, 1.94) 0.082   
Perception of pressure from other general dentists     
 No pressure/small amount (reference) 1.00    
 Medium/large pressure 1.14 (0.81, 1.62) 0.450   
Practice factors     
How many practices do you work in?     
 1 (reference) 1.00   1.00  
 2 or more 1.60 (1.08, 2.37) 0.018 1.69 (1.07, 2.65) 0.023
Perception about size of practice loans     
 No outstanding practice loans (reference) 1.00   1.00  
 Small 1.34 (0.77, 2.34) 0.301 0.90 (0.48, 1.68) 0.740
 Medium 2.41 (1.49, 3.91) < 0.001 1.46 (0.83, 2.56) 0.185
 Large 2.16 (1.38, 3.38) 0.001 1.53 (0.86, 2.71) 0.147
Location of the primary practice     
 Large population center (100,000 or greater) (reference) 1.00   1.00  
 Medium population center (30,000–99,999) 1.25 (0.82, 1.91) 0.292 1.30 (0.83, 2.05) 0.250
 Small population center (1000–29,999) 0.32 (0.17, 0.58) < 0.001 0.46 (0.22, 0.94) 0.033
Practice ownership     
 No, I do not own a practice (reference) 1.00   1.00  
 Yes 2.63 (1.71, 4.04) < 0.001 2.15 (1.23, 3.74) 0.007
Presence of specialists in close proximity (< 5 km) to the practice     
 No (reference) 1.00   1.00  
 Yes 2.85 (1.54, 5.28) 0.001 1.74 (0.83, 3.66) 0.143
Presence of in-house/visiting specialist     
 No (reference) 1.00 0.955   
 Yes 0.98 (0.62, 1.56)    
  1. *Model 1 entered all the variables independently
  2. **Model 2 entered significant variables from Model 1 (p < 0.05) as a block, adjusting for all variables simultaneously