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Table 3 Binary and multivariable logistic regression presenting the odds of perceiving ‘medium/large competitive pressure’ from specialists

From: What non-clinical factors influence the general dentist–specialist relationship in Canada?

  Binary Multivariable
Odds ratio* (95% CI) p Odds ratio** (95% CI) p
Socio-demographic factors     
Age     
 40 years and younger (reference) 1.00    
 41–50 1.07 (0.65, 1.75) 0.801   
 51–60 0.79 (0.47, 1.33) 0.378   
 > 61 0.65 (0.36, 1.19) 0.163   
Gender     
 Male (reference) 1.00    
 Female 0.67 (0.45, 1.01) 0.053   
Gross annual income     
 < $149,000 (reference) 1.00   1.00  
 $150,000–$249,000 1.30 (0.77, 2.18) 0.331 1.40 (0.81, 2.41) 0.224
 > $250,000 1.76 (1.08, 2.86) 0.024 1.68 (0.98, 2.88) 0.060
Relationship status     
 Single/non-married (reference) 1.00    
 Married 0.86 (0.51, 1.45) 0.570   
 Divorced/separated 1.09 (0.45, 2.66) 0.844   
Primary income-earner in the household     
 Yes (reference) 1.00    
 No 0.61 (0.32, 1.19) 0.147   
 My partner and I contribute equally 0.60 (0.35, 1.03) 0.064   
Number of dependents     
 0 (reference) 1.00   1.00  
 1 0.93 (0.48, 1.80) 0.819 0.84 (0.43, 1.66) 0.620
 2–4 1.69 (1.02, 2.79) 0.042 1.39 (0.80, 2.40) 0.240
 5 or more 3.21 (1.34, 7.69) 0.009 2.33 (0.91, 5.94) 0.077
Professional factors     
Type of practitioner     
 General dentist (reference) 1.00   1.00  
 General dentist with GPR/AEGD 2.04 (1.23, 3.38) 0.006 2.00 (1.17, 3.41) 0.011
Place of initial training     
 Canadian dental faculty (reference) 1.00    
 American dental faculty 0.69 (0.29, 1.65) 0.406   
 International dental faculty 1.15 (0.72, 1.84) 0.570   
Years of practice in Canada     
 < 14 years (reference) 1.00   1.00  
 15–29 0.76 (0.49, 1.17) 0.209 0.63 (0.38, 1.04) 0.072
 > 30 0.59 (0.35, 0.97) 0.039 0.71 (0.38, 1.31) 0.274
Presence of student loans     
 No, I do not have any student loans (reference) 1.00    
 Yes 1.03 (0.70, 1.52) 0.891   
Hours of CE in a year     
 Less than 30 (reference) 1.00    
 More than 30 0.71 (0.46, 1.09) 0.116   
Involvement in a study club     
 No (reference) 1.00    
 Yes 0.89 (0.60, 1.31) 0.554   
Perception of pressure from other general dentists     
 No pressure/small amount (reference) 1.00    
 Medium/large pressure 0.76 (0.52, 1.12) 0.170   
Practice factors     
How many practices do you work in?     
 1 (reference) 1.00    
 2 or more 1.52 (0.99, 2.33) 0.055   
Perception about size of practice loans     
 No outstanding practice loans (reference) 1.00   1.00  
 Small 0.93 (0.48, 1.80) 0.832 0.67 (0.33, 1.36) 0.268
 Medium 1.45 (0.82, 2.57) 0.206 0.96 (0.50, 1.84) 0.902
 Large 2.53 (1.60, 4.00) < 0.001 1.79 (0.99, 3.24) 0.054
Location of the primary practice     
 Large population center (100,000 or greater) (reference) 1.00   1.00  
 Medium population center (30,000–99,999) 1.10 (0.69, 1.77) 0.692 1.03 (0.63, 1.69) 0.912
 Small population center (1000–29,999) 0.44 (0.24, 0.80) 0.007 0.73 (0.36, 1.45) 0.366
Practice ownership     
 No, I do not own a practice (reference) 1.00   1.00  
 Yes 2.01 (1.29, 3.14) 0.002 1.73 (0.97, 3.08) 0.063
Presence of specialists in close proximity (< 5 km) to the practice     
 No (reference) 1.00   1.00  
 Yes 3.05 (1.51, 6.14) 0.002 2.52 (1.12, 5.69) 0.026
Presence of in-house/visiting specialist     
 No (reference) 1.00    
 Yes 1.11 (0.68, 1.81) 0.666   
  1. *Model 1 entered all the variables independently
  2. **Model 2 entered significant variables from Model 1 (p < 0.05) as a block, adjusting for all variables simultaneously