# Table 3 Binary and multivariable logistic regression presenting the odds of perceiving ‘medium/large competitive pressure’ from specialists

Binary Multivariable
Odds ratio* (95% CI) p Odds ratio** (95% CI) p
Socio-demographic factors
Age
40 years and younger (reference) 1.00
41–50 1.07 (0.65, 1.75) 0.801
51–60 0.79 (0.47, 1.33) 0.378
> 61 0.65 (0.36, 1.19) 0.163
Gender
Male (reference) 1.00
Female 0.67 (0.45, 1.01) 0.053
Gross annual income
< \$149,000 (reference) 1.00   1.00
\$150,000–\$249,000 1.30 (0.77, 2.18) 0.331 1.40 (0.81, 2.41) 0.224
> \$250,000 1.76 (1.08, 2.86) 0.024 1.68 (0.98, 2.88) 0.060
Relationship status
Single/non-married (reference) 1.00
Married 0.86 (0.51, 1.45) 0.570
Divorced/separated 1.09 (0.45, 2.66) 0.844
Primary income-earner in the household
Yes (reference) 1.00
No 0.61 (0.32, 1.19) 0.147
My partner and I contribute equally 0.60 (0.35, 1.03) 0.064
Number of dependents
0 (reference) 1.00   1.00
1 0.93 (0.48, 1.80) 0.819 0.84 (0.43, 1.66) 0.620
2–4 1.69 (1.02, 2.79) 0.042 1.39 (0.80, 2.40) 0.240
5 or more 3.21 (1.34, 7.69) 0.009 2.33 (0.91, 5.94) 0.077
Professional factors
Type of practitioner
General dentist (reference) 1.00   1.00
General dentist with GPR/AEGD 2.04 (1.23, 3.38) 0.006 2.00 (1.17, 3.41) 0.011
Place of initial training
American dental faculty 0.69 (0.29, 1.65) 0.406
International dental faculty 1.15 (0.72, 1.84) 0.570
< 14 years (reference) 1.00   1.00
15–29 0.76 (0.49, 1.17) 0.209 0.63 (0.38, 1.04) 0.072
> 30 0.59 (0.35, 0.97) 0.039 0.71 (0.38, 1.31) 0.274
Presence of student loans
No, I do not have any student loans (reference) 1.00
Yes 1.03 (0.70, 1.52) 0.891
Hours of CE in a year
Less than 30 (reference) 1.00
More than 30 0.71 (0.46, 1.09) 0.116
Involvement in a study club
No (reference) 1.00
Yes 0.89 (0.60, 1.31) 0.554
Perception of pressure from other general dentists
No pressure/small amount (reference) 1.00
Medium/large pressure 0.76 (0.52, 1.12) 0.170
Practice factors
How many practices do you work in?
1 (reference) 1.00
2 or more 1.52 (0.99, 2.33) 0.055
Perception about size of practice loans
No outstanding practice loans (reference) 1.00   1.00
Small 0.93 (0.48, 1.80) 0.832 0.67 (0.33, 1.36) 0.268
Medium 1.45 (0.82, 2.57) 0.206 0.96 (0.50, 1.84) 0.902
Large 2.53 (1.60, 4.00) < 0.001 1.79 (0.99, 3.24) 0.054
Location of the primary practice
Large population center (100,000 or greater) (reference) 1.00   1.00
Medium population center (30,000–99,999) 1.10 (0.69, 1.77) 0.692 1.03 (0.63, 1.69) 0.912
Small population center (1000–29,999) 0.44 (0.24, 0.80) 0.007 0.73 (0.36, 1.45) 0.366
Practice ownership
No, I do not own a practice (reference) 1.00   1.00
Yes 2.01 (1.29, 3.14) 0.002 1.73 (0.97, 3.08) 0.063
Presence of specialists in close proximity (< 5 km) to the practice
No (reference) 1.00   1.00
Yes 3.05 (1.51, 6.14) 0.002 2.52 (1.12, 5.69) 0.026
Presence of in-house/visiting specialist
No (reference) 1.00
Yes 1.11 (0.68, 1.81) 0.666
1. *Model 1 entered all the variables independently
2. **Model 2 entered significant variables from Model 1 (p < 0.05) as a block, adjusting for all variables simultaneously