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Table 2 Mean values at time-points t0 (baseline), t1 (1 month), t2 (2 months), t3 (3 months), and t4 (6 months) of Plaque Index, Gingival Index, and White Spot Lesions for the study group and control group

From: Effects of remote digital monitoring on oral hygiene of orthodontic patients: a prospective study

  PI       GI       WSL      
  Study group SD Control group SD Delta p-value* Study group SD Control group SD Delta p-value* Study group SD Control group SD Delta p-value*
t0 0.51 0.45 0.44 0.47  − 0.07 0.383 0.88 0.52 0.43 0.43  − 0.45 0.013 1.10 1.50 1.13 2.06 0.29 0.464
t1 0.41 0.43 0.63 0.53 0.22 0.069 0.61 0.56 0.48 0.45  − 0.13 0.259 1.10 1.90 0.93 2.08  − 0.17 0.434
t2 0.42 0.42 0.69 0.54 0.27 0.050 0.45 0.45 0.58 0.48 0.13 0.281 0.73 1.02 1.00 1.90 0.27 0.372
t3 0.35 0.42 0.74 0.48 0.39 0.010 0.43 0.42 0.56 0.45 0.13 0.198 0.66 1.10 0.71 1.50 0.04 0.500
t4 0.31 0.43 0.56 0.43 0.25 0.039 0.36 0.42 0.47 0.35 0.11 0.189 0.80 1.40 0.93 1.70 0.13 0.458
p-value#  < 0.001    < 0.001      < 0.001    < 0.001     0.035   0.085    
  1. Intergroup differences at each time-point, and intra-group differences at different time-points are reported. Delta represents the value of study group minus the value of control group
  2. PI Plaque Index; GI Gingival Index; WSL White Spot Lesions; SD Standard Deviation
  3. Statistically significant p-values are reported in bold
  4. #Cochran’s Q-test; *Student’s t-test