Skip to main content

Table 6 Evidence on other diseases and caries

From: Associations between dental caries and systemic diseases: a scoping review

Study Objectives and study design Study type Number of participants Location of study Outcomes and conclusions
Human studies on other diseases and caries
 Rheumatoid arthritis  
  Ayräväinen et al
Evaluate if oral inflammatory conditions are associated with RA and if targeted treatment of RA impacts oral health by comparing three groups-early untreated RA, chronic RA and controls Case-control 124 (81 cases and 43 controls) Finland Outcomes: Patients in early untreated RA (EURA) group, bronchial asthma was significantly more common compared to other groups (p = 0.04); during the study, significant decrease in pain in joints in both RA groups (p < 0.001) and significant increase in patients who brushed twice a day (p = 0.04) occurred; DMFT and DMFS was non-significantly different between groups and total dental index (TDI) was significantly worse in RA patients compared to controls (p = 0.04); number of 4–5 mm pockets were significantly higher in EURA group vs. chronic RA patients at both baseline and follow up visits (p < 0.001); positive Rheumatoid factor (RF) was associated with oral inflammation and patients with positive RF had higher median TDI values and deep pockets (≥4mm) compared to patients with negative RF (p = 0.001 and p > 0.001 respectively); DMFT, DMFS, TDI indices and serologic markers (SSA/SSB and RNP antibodies) were significantly higher in EURA patients compared to other groups (p = 0.039); DMFT and DMFS was associated with disease activity score (DAS28) in both RA patient groups at baseline and follow up; DMFS had an increasing association with activity of RA (p < 0.001)
Conclusion: RA patients had poorer oral health compared to controls and caries indices were associated with RA activity
  Martinez-Martinez et al
Evaluate frequency and severity of dental caries and the counts of cariogenic bacteria in RA patients when compared to controls Case-control 160 (80 cases and controls) Mexico Outcomes: RA patients reported significantly higher dry mouth sensation compared to control group (p < 0.05); RA group had significantly higher decayed teeth (p = 0.0149) and lower count of FT (p = 0.0004) compared to control group; treatment needs index and care index were significantly higher in RA and control groups respectively (p = 0.0002 and p = 0.0009 respectively); S. mutans was significantly higher in RA patients compared to controls (p < 0.05)
Conclusion: Dental caries is more frequent and severe in RA patients
 Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
  Loyola Rodriguez et al
Compare the prevalence of dental caries in active and inactive SLE patients by evaluating clinical, salivary and bacterial factors Case-control 60 (30 cases and controls) Mexico Outcomes: DMFT index was significantly higher in active SLE group when compared to inactive SLE group (p < 0.05) and only decayed component of DMFT index showed significant difference; functional teeth index (FS-T), treatment needs index (TNI) and care index (CI) were significantly different between groups (p < 0.05); integrative dental caries index (IDCI) showed significantly higher caries severity in the active SLE group for mild and moderate degrees of caries severity (p < 0.05); salivary flow and pH were significantly reduced in the active SLE group compared to inactive group (p < 0.05); DNA copies of S. mutans and S. sobrinus were significantly different between groups (p < 0.05); correlation was noted between SLE disease activity and DMFT, caries surfaces, pH, salivary flow, S. mutans and S. sobrinus and total bacteria (p < 0.0001)
Conclusion: SLE patients had high DMFT and active SLE patients had significantly high smooth surface caries along with high counts of S. mutans and S.sobrinus. A positive correlation was noted between active SLE and dental caries
  Gofur et al.  [85] Compare dental caries burden in patients with increasing severity of SLE. DMFT, oral hygiene metrics [oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S), debris index (DI), plaque index (PI), calculus index (CI) and personal hygiene performance-modified index (PHP-M)] and SLE severity (SLE disease severity index) were collected Cross sectional 93 Indonesia Outcomes: Patients were divided into mild, moderate and severe SLE disease severity. 74% patients with SLE had dental caries. PHP-M (p < 0.001), PI (p = 0.001), OHI-S (p < 0.001), DMFT (p = 0.001) were significantly associated with SLE severity
Conclusion: Correlation between oral hygiene metrics, dental caries and SLE severity was found in SLE patients
 Chronic kidney disease
  Menezes et al
Evaluate the association between chronic kidney disease and dental caries by comparing dental caries, salivary factors and cariogenic bacteria between patients with end stage renal disease and matched controls Case-control 214 (107 cases and controls) Brazil Outcomes: Significantly higher CFUs of S. mutans (p = 0.02), amounts of anti-mutans IgA (p = 0.04), urea in saliva (p < 0.001) and significantly fewer FT (p < 0.001) in group with end stage renal disease; presence of S. mutans, lower DMFT, fewer FT, lower salivary calcium and higher salivary urea were associated with end stage renal disease; positive correlation between quantity of anti-streptococcus IgA antibodies, salivary urea, colony forming units (CFUs) of S. mutans and duration of hemodialysis were noted; negative correlation was noted between hemodialysis and FT
Conclusion: Programs to prevent and treat oral problems in end-stage renal disease patients on hemodialysis may be required to improve awareness and oral health condition