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Table1 Clinical characteristics of the 87 patients and 174 joints included in this study

From: Can ultrasonography be used to assess capsular distention in the painful temporomandibular joint?

Clinical characteristics No. of patients (%)
Gender  
Male 27 (31%)
Female 60 (69%)
Age, year (range) 39.5 ± 15.5 (16–82)
History of orthodontic treatment 9 (10.3%)
Joint sound (n = 174 joints)  
( +) 82 (47%)
(−) 92 (53%)
Pain duration (n = 105 pain joint)  
Less than 3 months 61 (58%)
More than 3 months 44 (42%)
Pain score (n = 174 joints)  
None (NAS 0) 69 (39.7%)
Mild (NAS 1–3) 38 (21.8%)
Moderate (NAS 4–6) 60 (34.5%)
Severe (NAS 7–10) 7 (4%)
Maximum mouth opening  
Mean ± SD, mm (range) 37.2 ± 8.8 (12–58)
Oral conditions  
Tooth attrition 46 (52.9%)
Tongue ridging 44 (50.6%)
Buccal mucosa ridging 44 (50.6%)
Psychological factors  
Stress 32 (36.8%)
Depression 15 (17.2%)
Anxiety 17 (19.5%)
Behavioral factors  
Bruxism 12 (13.8%)
Clenching 29 (33.3%)
Side sleep 22 (25.3%)
Unilateral chewing 31 (35.6%)
Chin leaning 12 (13.8%)
Alcohol consumption 12 (13.8%)
Caffeine consumption 28 (32.2%)
Forward head posture 15 (17.2%)