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Table 4 Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models of risk factors for temporomandibular disorders

From: Temporomandibular disorders among medical students in China: prevalence, biological and psychological risk factors

  Univariable Multivariable
HR (95 %CI) p value HR (95 %CI) p value
Biological factor
Gender 1.211 (0.891, 1.646) 0.222   
Sleep bruxism 2.508 (1.668, 3.772) < 0.001 1.943 (1.217, 3.104) 0.005
Awake bruxism 2.540 (1.272, 5.073) 0.008 1.284 (0.567, 2.908) 0.548
Empty chewing 3.229 (2.056, 5.071) < 0.001 2.489 (1.484, 4.173) 0.001
Unilateral chewing 2.589 (1.890, 3.545) < 0.001 1.679 (1.178, 2.393) 0.004
Chewing gum 1.443 (1.035, 2.001) 0.030 0.977 (0.668, 1.429) 0.906
Static occlusion
Angle’s malocclusion 1.276 (0.785, 3.461) 0.364   
Anterior teeth overbite 1.234 (1.115, 1.367) < 0.001 1.193 (1.014, 1.403) 0.033
Anterior teeth overjet 1.262 (1.073, 1.485) 0.005 1.017 (0.786, 1.317) 0.895
Posterior teeth crossbite 0.426 (0.093, 1.960) 0.273   
Posterior scissor bite 1.718 (0.840, 3.515) 0.138   
Psychological factor
Depression 2.829 (2.042, 3.921) < 0.001 1.656 (1.143, 2.400) 0.008
Anxiety 4.911 (3.523, 6.844) < 0.001 3.351 (2.325, 4.829) < 0.001
Sleep disturbance 2.021 (1.505, 2.714) < 0.001 1.324 (0.946, 1.852) 0.101
  1.  h hazard ratio, CI confidence interval