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Table 3 Relationship between the participants' qualitative characteristics and their oral heath indices (N = 222)

From: Oral health status of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus and related factors, Iran: a cross-sectional study

Participants' characteristics DMFT Index Plaque Index Community Periodontal Index
Mean ± SD p-value Mean ± SD p-value Mean ± SD p-value
Sex    < 0.001    < 0.001   0.002
 Man 23.32 ± 9.85   1.35 ± 0.79   1.23 ± 1.07  
 Woman 15.15 ± 10.51   0.75 ± 0.65   0.72 ± 0.90  
Marital status*   0.003¶¶   0.001¶¶   0.340¶¶
 Single 23.52 ± 10.03a   1.42 ± 0.75a   1.20 ± 0.99  
 Divorced/widowed 21.21 ± 10.38ab   1.15 ± 0.82ab   1.02 ± 1.01  
 Married 17.76 ± 10.99b   0.85 ± 0.72b   0.90 ± 1.08  
Education*   0.001¶¶   0.074¶¶   0.992¶¶
 0–5 year 23.16 ± 9.97a   1.22 ± 0.79   1.06 ± 0.86  
 6–11 year 20.32 ± 9.97ab   1.17 ± 0.74   1.03 ± 1.14  
 Having a diploma degree or university education 15.67 ± 12.04b   0.81 ± 0.84   1.03 ± 1.12  
Employment status *    < 0.001¶¶    < 0.001¶¶    < 0.001¶¶
 Unemployed or having a temporary job 23.67 ± 9.67a   1.49 ± 0.71a   1.44 ± 1.04a  
 Having a permanent job 20.67 ± 11.13a   0.90 ± 0.83b   0.54 ± 0.86b  
 Homemaker 15.43 ± 10.38b   0.73 ± 0.65b   0.73 ± 0.91b  
Route of HIV transmission*    < 0.001¶¶    < 0.001¶¶   0.020¶¶
 Using share syringe by IV-drug abusers 24.08 ± 9.42a   1.39 ± 0.79a   1.27 ± 1.07a  
 Sexual contact outside the family 16.48 ± 11.18b   0.93 ± 0.72b   0.89 ± 1.06ab  
 Transmission from her/his HIV+ spouse 16.35 ± 10.42b   0.86 ± 0.66b   0.82 ± 0.82ab  
 Other routs 13.82 ± 10.92b   0.47 ± 0.63b   0.34 ± 0.71b  
Smoking cigarette/hookah (up to now)    < 0.001    < 0.001    < 0.001
 Yes 23.91 ± 9.52   1.39 ± 0.78   1.34 ± 1.08  
 No 14.04 ± 10.11   0.73 ± 0.64   0.61 ± 0.80  
Drinking alcohol (up to now)   0.001   0.017   0.001
 Yes 23.36 ± 10.13   1.32 ± 0.76   1.42 ± 1.11  
 No 18.68 ± 10.79   0.99 ± 0.78   0.82 ± 0.93  
Addiction to smoked illegal drugs (up to now)    < 0.001    < 0.001    < 0.001
 Yes 24.14 ± 9.63   1.43 ± 0.79   1.36 ± 1.06  
 No 15.06 ± 10.11   0.79 ± 0.66   0.69 ± 0.89  
Addiction to injected illegal drugs (up to now)    < 0.001    < 0.001    < 0.001
 Yes 24.76 ± 9.39   1.48 ± 0.81   1.42 ± 1.11  
 No 16.03 ± 10.33   0.85 ± 0.66   0.75 ± 0.88  
History of imprisonment,    < 0.001    < 0.001   0.001
 Yes 24.43 ± 9.39   1.42 ± 0.76   1.32 ± 1.10  
 No 15.44 ± 10.36   0.83 ± 0.71   0.76 ± 0.90  
  1. DMFT decayed, missing, and filled teeth; HIV human immunodeficiency virus; IV intravenous
  2. Indepandent sample T test
  3. ¶¶One way ANOVA
  4. *Different letters show statistically significant differences