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Table 3 Comparison between Class I and Class II patients with similar age group and breathing mode

From: Three-dimensional evaluation of hyoid bone position in nasal and mouth breathing subjects with skeletal Class I, and Class II

  7–9 years (n = 64) 10–12 years (n = 62)
Mouth breathing (n = 34) P value Nasal breathing (n = 30) P value Mouth breathing (n = 32) P value Nasal breathing (n = 30) P value
Class I (n = 15) Class II (n = 19) Class I (n = 15) Class II (n = 15) Class I (n = 16) Class II (n = 16) Class I (n = 15) Class II (n = 15)
Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD)
H-Mea 39.82 (4.14) 39.56 (7.01) 0.901 41.56 (4.04) 38.33 (5.11) 0.065 42.60 (5.61) 40.30 (5.27) 0.241 42.72 (5.26) 41.09 (6.57) 0.46
H-EBb 8.45 (2.71) 9.82 (3.91) 0.339 7.21 (1.97) 6.76 (1.99) 0.506 10.08 (3.82) 7.88 (2.94) 0.054 11.88 (5.04) 8.66 (2.55) 0.077
C3-Hb 25.12 (4.04) 25.42 (2.95) 0.741 24.87 (3.28) 25.68 (3.36) 0.663 27.61 (3.65) 25.10 (2.52) 0.045* 32.36 (5.06) 27.86 (2.88) 0.001**
C3-Meb 64.62 (4.40) 64.20 (7.55) 0.578 65.07 (5.38) 63.46 (6.63) 0.205 70.13 (7.61) 64.93 (6.68) 0.028* 71.90 (5.52) 65.14 (11.35) 0.029*
H-C3Mea 2.60 (1.88) − 1.67 (3.54) 0.0001*** − 0.99 (4.36) 1.68 (3.17) 0.065 1.21 (4.83) 2.81 (4.16) 0.324 2.35 (7.62) 4.11 (4.18) 0.439
H-PNSa 51.04 (2.31) 45.80 ( 4.61) 0.0003*** 46.82 (5.49) 49.54 (2.01) 0.082 51.97 (5.76) 53.92 (3.63) 0.261 51.92 (9.21) 53.65 (5.18) 0.532
H-Hb 15.91 (17.72) 12.53 ( 8.66) 0.93 18.68 (9.60) 17.08 (5.99) 0.262 9.39 (6.58) 12.74 (8.85) 0.067 15.27 (8.47) 14.32 (5.34) 0.067
H-Vb 82.38 (4.41) 77.37 (6.83) 0.002** 75.94 (2.99) 81.7 (3.50) 0.00007**** 88.45 (6.86) 90.96 (6.21) 0.18 90.18 (11.34) 88.24 (6.92) 0.983
  1. ****p < 0.0001, ***p < 0.001, **p < 0.01, *p < 0.05,
  2. aIndependent sample t-test
  3. bMann–Whitney U test