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Table 5 Effect of age on HBPs in each skeletal class and breathing pattern

From: Three-dimensional evaluation of hyoid bone position in nasal and mouth breathing subjects with skeletal Class I, and Class II

  Class I (n = 61) Class II (n = 65)
Mouth breathing (n = 31) P value Nasal breathing (n = 30) P value Mouth breathing (n = 35) P value Nasal breathing (n = 30) P value
7–9 years (n = 15) 10–12 years (n = 16) 7–9 years (n = 15) 10–12 years (n = 15) 7–9 years (n = 19) 10–12 years (n = 16) 7–9 years (n = 15) 10–12 years (n = 15)
Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD)
H-Mea 39.82 (4.14) 42.60 (5.61) 0.129 41.56 (4.04) 42.72 (5.26) 0.503 39.56 (7.01) 40.3 (5.27) 0.731 38.33 (5.11) 41.09 (6.57) 0.209
H-EBb 8.45 (2.71) 10.08 (3.82) 0.154 7.21 (1.97) 11.88 (5.04) 0.007** 9.82 (3.91) 7.88 (2.94) 0.119 6.76 (1.99) 8.66 (2.55) 0.026*
C3-Hb 25.12 (4.04) 27.61 (3.65) 0.068 24.87 (3.28) 32.36 (5.06) 0.00008**** 25.42 (2.95) 25.10 (2.52) 0.973 25.68 (3.36) 27.86 (2.88) 0.081
C3-Meb 64.62 (4.40) 70.13 (7.61) 0.017* 65.07 (5.38) 71.90 (5.52) 0.003** 64.20 (7.55) 64.93 (6.68) 0.596 63.46 (6.63) 65.14 (11.35) 0.146
H-C3Mea 2.60 (1.88) 1.21 (4.83) 0.307 − 0.99 (4.36) 2.35 (7.62) 0.151 − 1.67 (3.54) 2.81 (4.16) 0.001*** 1.68 (3.17) 4.11 (4.18) 0.083
H-PNSa 51.04 (2.31) 51.97 (5.76) 0.566 46.82 (5.49) 51.92 (9.21) 0.076 45.80 (4.61) 53.92 (3.63) 0.0001**** 49.54 (2.01) 53.65 (5.18) 0.007**
H-Hb 15.91 (17.72) 8.88 (5.71) 0.322 18.68 (9.60) 15.27 (8.47) 0.28 12.53 (8.66) 12.74 (8.85) 0.753 17.08 (5.99) 14.32 (5.34) 0.319
H-Vb 82.38 (4.41) 88.45 (6.86) 0.026* 75.94 (2.99) 90.18 (11.34) 0.00002**** 77.37 (6.83) 90.96 (6.21) 0.00003**** 81.70 (3.50) 88.24 (6.92) 0.007**
  1. ****p < 0.0001, ***p < 0.001, **p < 0.01, *p < 0.05
  2. aIndependent sample t-test
  3. bMann-Whitney U test