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Table 2 Comparison of facial regions at different periods (\(\overline{\mathrm{X} }\)±SD)

From: Profiles of facial soft tissue changes during and after orthodontic treatment in female adults

Region Non-extraction Extraction P-value Non-extraction Extraction P-value Non-extraction Extraction P-value Non-extraction Extraction P-value
T1–T0 T1–T0 T2–T0 T2–T0   T3–T0 T3–T0   T4–T0 T4–T0  
W  − 2.59 ± 0.35  − 2.56 ± 0.31 0.768  − 2.4 ± 0.39  − 2.76 ± 0.62 0.068  − 2.21 ± 0.42  − 2.54 ± 0.50 0.101  − 2.13 ± 0.41  − 2.54 ± 0.37 0.657
R1  − 1.27 ± 0.52  − 1.21 ± 0.40 0.717  − 1.11 ± 0.41  − 0.93 ± 0.37 0.099  − 0.93 ± 0.36  − 1.00 ± 0.44 0.577  − 0.98 ± 0.30  − 0.98 ± 0.32 0.938
R2  − 1.01 ± 0.54  − 1.18 ± 0.39 0.245  − 0.88 ± 0.39  − 1.01 ± 0.40 0.271  − 0.86 ± 0.39  − 0.89 ± 0.34 0.779  − 0.93 ± 0.54  − 0.85 ± 0.37 0.507
R3  − 1.07 ± 0.43  − 1.05 ± 0.79 0.857  − 1.05 ± 0.40  − 1.07 ± 0.35 0.88  − 0.74 ± 0.30  − 0.94 ± 0.39 0.068  − 0.93 ± 0.30  − 0.91 ± 0.34 0.814
R4  − 0.65 ± 0.3  − 0.73 ± 0.38 0.474  − 0.65 ± 0.38  − 0.72 ± 0.43 0.557  − 0.70 ± 0.35  − 0.91 ± 0.40 0.317  − 0.85 ± 0.33  − 0.89 ± 0.35 0.691
R5  − 0.89 ± 0.48  − 1.04 ± 0.84 0.455  − 0.71 ± 0.38  − 1.15 ± 0.36 0.317  − 0.60 ± 0.29  − 0.77 ± 0.37 0.061  − 0.84 ± 0.32  − 0.97 ± 0.43 0.257
R6  − 1.08 ± 0.50  − 1.18 ± 0.51 0.5  − 0.88 ± 0.48  − 1.22 ± 0.43 0.081  − 0.76 ± 0.23  − 1.13 ± 0.32 0.242  − 0.97 ± 0.35  − 1.06 ± 0.38 0.401
R7  − 0.84 ± 0.42  − 1.02 ± 0.43 0.171  − 0.80 ± 0.47  − 1.09 ± 0.54 0.052  − 0.83 ± 0.38  − 1.19 ± 0.33 0.064  − 1.07 ± 0.24  − 1.03 ± 0.45 0.71
R8  − 1.2 ± 0.66  − 1.49 ± 0.66 0.152  − 1.25 ± 0.55  − 1.87 ± 0.59 0.254  − 1.21 ± 0.48  − 1.62 ± 0.56 0.439  − 1.18 ± 0.38  − 1.55 ± 0.59 0.062
R9  − 1.16 ± 0.5  − 1.37 ± 0.81 0.293  − 1.05 ± 0.42  − 1.31 ± 0.32 0.252  − 0.92 ± 0.39  − 1.15 ± 0.31 0.144  − 1.05 ± 0.29  − 1.23 ± 0.39 0.067
R10  − 1.17 ± 0.5  − 1.46 ± 0.52 0.27  − 1.04 ± 0.47  − 1.26 ± 0.42 0.084  − 0.81 ± 0.28  − 1.31 ± 0.36 0.113  − 1.03 ± 0.28  − 1.11 ± 0.40 0.422
R11  − 1.36 ± 0.48  − 1.76 ± 0.50 0.008**  − 1.35 ± 0.56  − 1.59 ± 0.47 0.115  − 1.10 ± 0.40  − 1.44 ± 0.41 0.005**  − 1.05 ± 0.33  − 1.43 ± 0.49 0.002**
  1. R1, infraorbital region; R2, cheekbone region; R3, zygomatic region; R4, paranasal region; R5, upper cheek region; R6, sub-zygomatic region; R7, upper cheilion region; R8, lower cheilion region; R9, buccal region; R10, mandibular angle region; R11, temporal region; T0, before bracket bonding; T1, 3 months after treatment initiation; T2, 6 months after treatment initiation, T3, 12 months after treatment initiation; T4, at the end of treatment; W, Overall facial area. ** P < 0.01
  2. Values are all expressed as mean ± SD. *Significant difference between the Non-extraction and Extraction groups with P < 0.05; **Significant difference between the Non-extraction and Extraction groups with P < 0.01