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Table 4 Surface roughness variation between before and after polishing of bulk fill and conventional nanohybrid resin composites, with and without oxygen inhibited layer control

From: Surface roughness and oxygen inhibited layer control in bulk-fill and conventional nanohybrid resin composites with and without polishing: in vitro study

Resin composite (\({\overline{\text{X}}}_{{\text{f}}} - {\overline{\text{X}}}_{{\text{i}}}\)) Median SD SE 95% CI w t p* K–W p**
LL UL
TNC-BF(G)  − 0.489  − 0.419a 0.243 0.077  − 0.663  − 0.315 0.060  − 6.353 0.000 22.462 0.021**
TNC-BF  − 0.362  − 0.254a 0.465 0.147  − 0.695  − 0.030 0.196  − 2.463 0.036
TNC-CN (G)  − 0.296  − 0.272a 0.145 0.046  − 0.400  − 0.192 0.334  − 6.436 0.000
TNC-CN  − 0.452  − 0.552a 0.266 0.084  − 0.642  − 0.262 0.227  − 5.384 0.000
O-BF (G)  − 0.170  − 0.222a 0.319 0.101  − 0.398 0.058 0.917  − 1.691 0.125
O-BF  − 0.518  − 0.504a 0.441 0.140  − 0.833  − 0.202 0.338  − 3.709 0.005
O-CN (G)  − 0.389  − 0.412a 0.248 0.079  − 0.567  − 0.212 0.493  − 4.959 0.001
O-CN  − 0.295  − 0.303a 0.201 0.064  − 0.439  − 0.151 0.518  − 4.640 0.001
F-BF (G)  − 0.134  − 0.103a 0.110 0.035  − 0.213  − 0.056 0.192  − 3.877 0.004
F-BF  − 0.169  − 0.188a 0.086 0.027  − 0.231  − 0.107 0.387  − 6.187 0.000
F-CN (G)  − 0.420  − 0.430a 0.244 0.077  − 0.594  − 0.246 0.333  − 5.448 0.000
F-CN  − 0.288  − 0.294a 0.212 0.067  − 0.440  − 0.136 0.886  − 4.294 0.002
  1. Equal letters (a) were used to indicate no significant difference (p > 0.05) for independent pairwise comparison, according to Bonferroni post hoc adjustment
  2. (\({\overline{\text{X}}}_{{\text{f}}} - {\overline{\text{X}}}_{{\text{i}}}\)): Mean difference; (\({\overline{\text{X}}}_{{\text{f}}}\)): After polishing; (\({\overline{\text{X}}}_{{\text{i}}}\)): Before polishing; SD Standard deviation; SE Standard error of mean; 95% CI 95% confidence interval, LL Lower limit, UL Upper limit; w: Normality analysis based on Shapiro Wilk Test (normal distribution: p > 0.05); t: Student’s t-test for related measures (significant differences *p < 0.05). K–W Kruskall Wallis test (significant differences in at least two groups: **p < 0.05)