Acid production in dental plaque after exposure to probiotic bacteria
© Keller and Twetman; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2012
Received: 5 December 2011
Accepted: 17 October 2012
Published: 24 October 2012
The increasing interest in probiotic lactobacilli in health maintenance has raised the question of potential risks. One possible side effect could be an increased acidogenicity in dental plaque. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of probiotic lactobacilli on plaque lactic acid (LA) production in vitro and in vivo.
In the first part (A), suspensions of two lactobacilli strains (L. reuteri DSM 17938, L. plantarum 299v) were added to suspensions of supragingival dental plaque collected from healthy young adults (n=25). LA production after fermentation with either xylitol or fructose was analyzed. In the second part (B), subjects (n=18) were given lozenges with probiotic lactobacilli (L. reuteri DSM 17938 and ATCC PTA 5289) or placebo for two weeks in a double-blinded, randomized cross-over trial. The concentration of LA in supragingival plaque samples was determined at baseline and after 2 weeks. Salivary counts of mutans streptococci (MS) and lactobacilli were estimated with chair-side methods.
Plaque suspensions with L. reuteri DSM 17938 produced significantly less LA compared with L. plantarum 299v or controls (p<0.05). Fructose gave higher LA concentrations than xylitol. In part B, there were no significant differences in LA production between baseline and follow up in any of the groups and no differences between test and placebo were displayed. The salivary MS counts were not significantly altered during the intervention but the lactobacilli counts increased significantly in the test group (p<0.05).
Lactic acid production in suspensions of plaque and probiotic lactobacilli was strain-dependant and the present study provides no evidence of an increase in plaque acidity by the supply of selected probiotic lactobacilli when challenged by fructose or xylitol. The study protocol was approved by The Danish National Committee on Biomedical Research Ethics (protocol no H-2-2010-112).
Probiotic bacteria have long been used for improving gastro-intestinal health  and there is emerging evidence that lactobacilli-derived probiotic bacteria also can have beneficial influences on oral health. Several studies have shown a decrease in oral mutans streptococci counts after short-term consumption of L. reuteri[2–5] and L. rhamnosus and a few have demonstrated an effect on caries prevention and control [7–9]. However, less attention has been paid to the potential risk of probiotic usage. Lactobacilli are considered a part of the resident oral microflora but elevated counts have been reported after probiotic regimes . Lactobacilli are highly acidogenic and aciduric but mainly found in the deep carious lesions  and hence, not considered to be involved in the initiation of caries lesion. The ability of probiotic lactobacilli to ferment sugars has been shown to be dependent on the type of sugars and to vary between different strains in vitro. For example, strains of L. plantarum produced acids at a rapid rate while L. reuteri slowly generated weak reactions with glucose, lactose, sucrose, maltose and melibiose under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions . However, the clinical relevance of such findings is sparsely investigated. Recently, Marttinen and co-workers  reported that intake of tablets containing either L. rhamnosus GG or L. reuteri did not seem to affect the lactic acid levels in dental plaque. With addition of probiotic bacteria to many commercially available products and their increasing consumption, studies on the safety of lactobacilli intended for oral use are important. Our aim was therefore to investigate the effect of probiotic lactobacilli on lactic acid production in supragingival dental plaque in vitro as well as in vivo. The null hypothesis was that the acidogenicity would not differ from placebo or controls.
The investigation was conducted in two parts; a laboratory study and a double-blinded, randomized cross-over trial. For the clinical part, a power calculation (α=0.05 and β=0.20) based on pilot findings indicated that 18 subjects were needed in the test and placebo groups respectively. The probiotic strains used in both parts are all commercially available and used in fruit drinks and in tablets. The study protocol was approved by The Danish National Committee on Biomedical Research Ethics (protocol no H-2-2010-112). Clinical trial number NCT01700712.
Twenty-five healthy young adults of both sexes (mean age 27 yrs) with uncompromised oral health (mean DMFT (Decayed, Missed, Filled Teeth) = 4) were enrolled after informed consent. None of the subjects were habitual consumers of probiotic products. They were instructed to refrain from tooth brushing for 24 hours before their visit. Supragingival dental plaque was collected from all teeth with a blunt explorer, pooled and transferred to a plastic tube. The fresh samples was suspended and homogenized in PBS (Phosphate buffered saline) (pH=7.2) and adjusted to an optical density of OD=0.2 at 340 nm. Five hundred μl of the plaque suspensions were thereafter mixed with 500 μl of equally dense suspensions of either L. reuteri DSM 17938 (Biogaia, Stockholm, Sweden) or L. plantarum 299v (Probi AB, Lund, Sweden) in PBS. The lactobacilli strains were cultivated in Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) broth (Oxoid Ldt., Basingstoke, Hampshire, UK) in an anaerobic incubator at 37°C for 24 h and then washed twice in PBS. One ml of the plaque suspension with no addition of probiotic bacteria served as control. Also, one ml suspensions of lactobacilli with the same optical density as the other samples were used as controls. Baseline spectrophotometric (Genesys 10 uv Scanning, Thermo Scientific, MA, USA) values were recorded and the suspensions were then incubated for 1h in 37°C without agitation. The OD-readings were repeated and the acid production was initiated by adding 25 μl fructose (10%) or xylitol (10%) to each sample. After 30 minutes of further incubation, the fermentation was stopped by centrifugation for 2 min (10,000 rpm) and the supernatant was withdrawn for further analyses. The concentration of the L- and D- isomers of lactic acid (LA) was determined enzymatically and expressed as μg/ml with aid of a commercial kit (EnzyPlus, Biocontrol) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. All assays were performed in duplicate and the mean sum of the L- and D- isomers were calculated.
Thirty subjects were screened for the presence of salivary mutans streptococci and eighteen were eligible for the clinical trial (14 female, 4 male; mean age = 26 yr; DMFT= 2). The inclusion criteria were i) moderate to high counts of salivary mutans streptococci (>104 CFU) as estimated with the Dentocult SM chair-side test, ii) no visible open caries lesions or periodontal disease, and iii) being non-smokers. Also, none of the subjects were consuming probiotic products, or had been taking antibiotics within the last two months. After group allocation and a run-in period of 3 days (phase 1) with professional tooth cleaning, the participants were instructed to take three tablets per day (morning, noon and evening) containing either two strains of the probiotic bacterium L. reuteri (DSM 17938 and ATCC PTA 5289; 1x108 CFU of each strain) or placebo for 2 weeks (phase 2). Both tablets were provided by BioGaia AB (Sweden). Stimulated saliva samples were collected after 3 minutes of chewing paraffin gums. Pooled supragingival plaque samples were collected at baseline and after the intervention. Numbers of mutans streptococci and Lactobacilli in saliva was determined by the aid of a test kit (Dentocult SM Strip Mutans and Dentocult LB respectively, Orion Diagnostica, Finland) according to the manufacturer’s guidelines. The samples were all collected between 10 and 11 am before lunch and approximately 3–4 hours after consuming the last tablet. After a 3-week washout period (phase 3), the 2-week intervention was repeated with the second tablet (phase 4). Again, baseline and follow-up samples were collected. The tablets were supplied and coded A or B by the manufacturer and the test and placebo products were identical in taste, composition and appearance. The code was not unveiled until after the analyses and the statistical calculations. During all phases, the subjects were asked to maintain their normal oral hygiene routines including tooth brushing with fluoride toothpaste. They were however firmly requested to avoid intake of any food items supplemented with probiotic bacteria.
Salivary lactobacilli score
0 (0 CFU/ml)
1 (103 CFU/ml)
2 (104 CFU/ml)
Mutans streptococci score
Streptococcus mutans score
0 (<103 CFU/ml)
1 (103<104 CFU/ml)
2 (104<105 CFU/ml)
3 (≥105 CFU/ml)
Data was processed with the IBM-SPSS software (version 19.0, Chicago Ill, USA). In part A, differences in outcome between probiotic strains vs. control was analyzed with Wilcoxon sign rank test. In part B, acid production was compared before and after intervention within groups as well as between the groups before and after intervention by Wilcoxon signed rank test. Differences in lactobacilli and mutans streptococci were analyzed by Chi square test. A p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Reliability of the bacterial scoring was analyzed on a random sample (20%) of the tests and the intra examiner correlation showed an ICC value of 0.97.
Mean lactic acid concentration (SD) μg/ml in suspensions of pooled supragingival plaque from health young adults (n=18)
The increased interest in using of probiotic lactobacilli to improve oral health has raised concerns on its possible side effects. One side effect from a cariological point of view would be an increased production of organic acids in the dental plaque. Therefore, we wanted to investigate if addition of probiotic lactobacilli to dental plaque would influence its acidogenicity. In the laboratory part, we found clear differences between the lactic acid production in suspensions of pooled plaque and L. reuteri DSM 17938 on one hand and plaque plus L. plantarum 299v or pure controls on the other. This was in agreement with the in vitro study of Hedberg et al. , who found L. plantarum 299v to be most prone to produce acid among six different commercial strains tested. Conversely, Haukioja and co-workers  found that both L. reuteri DSM (formerly ATCC 55730) and L. plantarum 299v lowered the pH significantly after fermentation of glucose and sucrose. According to Hedberg et al. , the fermentation of sucrose and glucose by L. reuteri PTA 5289 resulted in a lowering of the pH (pH 5.2-6.8), whereas the fermentation of fructose caused a minor increase in pH (pH>6.8). This, together with our present results, indicates that the sugar chosen for fermentation has a strong impact on the LA production of L. reuteri. Thus, from the first part of this study, it seems clear that the acidogenicity of suspensions of dental plaque and probiotic bacteria is strain-dependant and highly influenced by the type of sugar available. Moreover, it was noteworthy that the results of part A were completely in line with findings of previous in vitro studies [12, 14]. This indicates that the laboratory methods for screening probiotic candidates for oral diseases may be useful to differentiate between wanted and unwanted targeted properties. As acid production in suspensions in the laboratory may not mimic the exact conditions in of the complex biofilm in situ, a step further could be to study the pH of the plaque in vivo by a micro pH-meter.
In the clinical part of this study we found no differences in acid production before and after the intervention with L. reuteri or placebo when the plaque samples were fermenting fructose. Thus, the null hypothesis could not be rejected. The findings were in accordance with Marttinen et al. , who failed to demonstrate any differences in lactic acid production after the intervention with either L. reuteri or L. rhamnosus GG. It could be argued that the decreased acidogenity of the plaque samples could be caused by the antibacterial activity of L. reuteri, but due to the relatively short period of administration we believe that this was not the case. Since xylitol is not thought to be fermented by oral bacteria  the low concentrations of LA after addition of xylitol were expected. It should however be stressed that the volunteers in this projects had healthy oral conditions and most likely not fully representative for subjects with an ecologically stressed and unbalanced biofilm. In theory, such a condition could possibly increase the efficacy of probiotic therapy. We and other research groups have demonstrated that low pH conditions may promote mutans streptococcus growth inhibition by probiotic lactobacilli [16, 17] and interfere with the biofilm formation . Thus, further studies on selected caries-active patients would be interesting. The conclusion so far from the clinical part was that despite their strong acidogenic abilities, daily supplements of probiotic lactobacilli did not seem to increase the acidogenity of the dental plaque when exposed to fructose or xylitol.
There were no differences in salivary mutans streptococci levels between the two groups and we recorded no changes after the intervention period. This was in contrast to several previous studies [2–5] but in concert with others [9, 19, 20]. Differences in strains and bacterial concentrations, dose regimes and age groups used in the earlier trials hamper any comparison between the trials and thereby firm conclusions. It is generally believed that probiotic supplements may be more effective in preschool ages than in adults , which to some extent may explain our negative findings. The increased in lactobacilli counts in the test group was logical and supported the findings of Marttinen and co-workers  although we were not able to analyze whether or not it was due to the specific strain tested. However, it is unlikely that a permanent shift of the microbial composition occurs [22, 23]. Caglar et al.  studied the number of carriers of L. reuteri ATCC 55730 after a 2-week intake period of tablets containing that strain. Using selective media and analyzes for reuterin production, the bacteria was recovered in all test subjects immediately after the intervention period but it was gradually eliminated within a few weeks. However, it is still an open question if a colonization of the oral biofilm per se is an absolute requirement for probiotic action.
The results of the present study suggest that the acidogenicity of suspension of dental plaque and probiotic lactobacilli is strain-dependant and influenced by the type of sugar available. Furthermore, The present study provides no evidence of an increase in plaque acidity by the supply of selected probiotic lactobacilli when challenged by fructose or xylitol.
The authors would like thank Mads Møller, Jesper Olsen and Rasmus Ryhl for collecting plaque samples and Ulla Larsen for skilled laboratory help. The experimental products were kindly provided by BioGaia AB, Sweden.
- Devine DA, Marsh PD: Prospects for the development of probiotics and prebiotics for oral applications. J Oral Microbiol. 2009, 1: 10.3402/jom.v1i0.1949.Google Scholar
- Caglar E, Sandalli N, Twetman S, Kavaloglu S, Ergeneli S, Selvi S: Effect of yogurt with Bifidobacterium DN-173 010 on salivary mutans streptococci and lactobacilli in young adults. Acta Odontol Scand. 2005, 63: 317-320. 10.1080/00016350510020070.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Caglar E, Cildir SK, Ergeneli S, Sandalli N, Twetman S: Salivary mutans streptococci and lactobacilli levels after ingestion of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 by straws or tablets. Acta Odontol Scand. 2006, 64: 314-318. 10.1080/00016350600801709.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Caglar E, Kavaloglu SC, Kuscu OO, Sandalli N, Holgerson PL, Twetman S: Effect of chewing gums containing xylitol or probiotic bacteria on salivary mutans streptococci and lactobacilli. Clin Oral Investig. 2007, 11: 425-429. 10.1007/s00784-007-0129-9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nikawa H, Makihira S, Fukushima H, Nishimura H, Ozaki Y, Ishida K, et al: Lactobacillus reuteri in bovine milk fermented decreases the oral carriage of mutans streptococci. Int J Food Microbiol. 2004, 95: 219-223. 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2004.03.006.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ahola AJ, Yli-Knuuttila H, Suomalainen T, Poussa T, Ahlstrom A, Meurman JH, et al: Short-term consumption of probiotic-containing cheese and its effect on dental caries risk factors. Arch Oral Biol. 2002, 47: 799-804. 10.1016/S0003-9969(02)00112-7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Näse L, Hatakka K, Savilahti E, Saxelin M, Ponka A, Poussa T, et al: Effect of long-term consumption of a probiotic bacterium, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, in milk on dental caries and caries risk in children. Caries Res. 2001, 35: 412-420. 10.1159/000047484.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Stecksen-Blicks C, Sjöström I, Twetman S: Effect of long-term consumption of milk supplemented with probiotic lactobacilli and fluoride on dental caries and general health in preschool children: a cluster-randomized study. Caries Res. 2009, 43: 374-381. 10.1159/000235581.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Petersson LG, Magnusson K, Hakestam U, Baigi A, Twetman S: Reversal of primary root caries lesions after daily intake of milk supplemented with fluoride and probiotic lactobacilli in older adults. Acta Odontol Scand. 2011, 69: 321-327. 10.3109/00016357.2011.568962.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Montalto M, Vastola M, Marigo L, Covino M, Graziosetto R, Curigliano V, et al: Probiotic treatment increases salivary counts of lactobacilli: a double-blind, randomized, controlled study. Digestion. 2004, 69: 53-56. 10.1159/000076559.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Runarsson AR: Changes in the oral microflora of occlusal surfaces of teeth with the onset of dental caries. PhD thesis. 2009, University of Iceland, Faculty of OdontologyGoogle Scholar
- Hedberg M, Hasslöf P, Sjöström I, Twetman S, Stecksen-Blicks C: Sugar fermentation in probiotic bacteria–an in vitro study. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2008, 23: 482-485. 10.1111/j.1399-302X.2008.00457.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Marttinen A, Haukioja A, Karjalainen S, Nylund L, Satokari R, Öhman C, et al: Short-term consumption of probiotic lactobacilli has no effect on acid production of supragingival plaque. Clin Oral Investig. 2011, 16: 797-803.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Haukioja A, Söderling E, Tenovuo J: Acid production from sugars and sugar alcohols by probiotic lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in vitro. Caries Res. 2008, 42: 449-453. 10.1159/000163020.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Edgar WM: Sugar substitutes, chewing gum and dental caries–a review. Br Dent J. 1998, 184: 29-32. 10.1038/sj.bdj.4809535.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Keller MK, Hasslöf P, Stecksén-Blicks C, Twetman S: Co-aggregation and growth inhibition of probiotic lactobacilli and clinical isolates of mutans streptococci: an in vitro study. Acta Odontol Scand. 2011, 69: 263-268. 10.3109/00016357.2011.554863.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Simark-Mattsson C, Jonsson R, Emilson CG, Roos K: Final pH affects the interference capacity of naturally occurring oral Lactobacillus strains against mutans streptococci. Arch Oral Biol. 2009, 54: 602-607. 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2009.03.005.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Söderling EM, Marttinen AM, Haukioja AL: Probiotic lactobacilli interfere with Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation in vitro. Curr Microbiol. 2011, 62: 618-622. 10.1007/s00284-010-9752-9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cildir S, Sandalli N, Alp F, Caglar E: A novel delivery system of probiotic drop and its effect on dental caries risk factors in cleft lip/palate children. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2011, 49: 369-72.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lexner MO, Blomqvist S, Dahlen G, Twetman S: Microbiological profiles in saliva and supragingival plaque from caries-active adolescents before and after a short-term daily intake of milk supplemented with probiotic bacteria - a pilot study. Oral Health Prev Dent. 2010, 8: 383-388.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- de Vrese M, Schrezenmeir J: Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics. Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol. 2008, 111: 1-66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Caglar E, Topcuoglu N, Cildir SK, Sandalli N, Kulekci G: Oral colonization by Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 after exposure to probiotics. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2009, 19: 377-381. 10.1111/j.1365-263X.2009.00989.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yli-Knuuttila H, Snäll J, Kari K, Meurman JH: Colonization of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in the oral cavity. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2006, 21: 129-131. 10.1111/j.1399-302X.2006.00258.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6831/12/44/prepub
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.