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Table 1 Primary causes of intrinsic and extrinsic dental erosion *.

From: Dietary behavior and knowledge of dental erosion among Chinese adults

Intrinsic causes

   1. Anatomical and neuromuscular defects such as hiatal hernia, esophageal diverticulosis, obstructions, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

   2. Psychological problems such as bulimia nervosa, anorexia nervosa, alcoholism, stress rumination

   3. Irritation of the gastric mucosa from spices, acidic foods and drinks, alcohol, aspirin and other drugs, infections

   4. Medical conditions such as uremia, ascites, diabetes, peptic ulcer, morning sickness during pregnancy

Extrinsic causes

   1. Diets, such as acidic citrus and other fruits, fruit juices, carbonated acidic beverages and sports drinks/waters, beers and herbal teas, vinegars and pickled conserves

   2. Medications, such as non-encapsulated hydrochloric acid replacement, chewing vitamin C tablets, iron tonics, amino acid supplements, salivary stimulants

   3. Occupations, such as wine tasting or jobs that involve working around acidic industrial vapors

   4. Sports, such as swimming in improperly gas-chlorinated pools ('swimmer's teeth')

  1. * Source: Smales and Kaidonis, 2006