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Table 4 Univariate analysis between socioeconomic factors and oral clinical conditions related to domain-specific OHIP-14 scores

From: Association between gingival bleeding and gingival enlargement and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of subjects under fixed orthodontic treatment: a cross-sectional study

Variables n (%) Fl Php Psydisc Phydisa Psydisa Sdisa Hand
      Mean (±SD)    
Gender p* < 0.001 p*0.926 p*0.033 p* < 0.001 p*0.385 p* > 0.999 p* > 0.999
Male 159 (48.1) 0.44 (0.49) 0.21 (0.53) 1.81 (1.21) 0.10 (0.30) 0.22 (0.71) 0 (0) 0 (0)
Female 171 (51.8) 0 (0) 0.29 (0.70) 2.07 (0.53) 0 (0) 0.30 (0.84) 0 (0) 0 (0)
Ethnicity p* < 0.001 p*0.728 p* < 0.001 p* < 0.001 p*0.124 p* > 0.999 p* > 0.999
White 263 (79.7) 0.04 (0.21) 0.26 (0.66) 1.83 (0.94) 0.02 (0.16) 0.30 (0.84) 0 (0) 0 (0)
Non-White 67 (20.3) 0.86 (0.34) 0.20 (0.47) 2.4 (0.73) 0.14 (0.35) 0.11 (0.47) 0 (0) 0 (0)
Age (years) p** < 0.001 p** < 0.001 p** < 0.001 p** < 0.001 p**0.052 p** > 0.999 p** > 0.999
14-19 162 (49.0) 0.11 (0.32) 0.30 (0.72) 2.16 (0.46) 0 (0) 0.36 (0.91) 0 (0) 0 (0)
20-24 121 (36.6) 0.27 (0.44) 0.13 (0.49) 1.52 (0.97) 0 (0) 0.23 (0.71) 0 (0) 0 (0)
25-30 47 (14.2) 0.40 (0.49) 0.38 (0.53) 2.29 (1.50) 0.36 (0.48) 0.04 (0.29) 0 (0) 0 (0)
Household Income p*0.468 p* < 0.001 p* < 0.001 p*0.046 p* 0.966 p* > 0.999 p* > 0.999
≤ 5 wages 270 (81.8) 0.20 (0.40) 0.31 (0.68) 2.27 (0.57) 0.06 (0.24) 0.27 (0.81) 0 (0) 0 (0)
> 5 wages 60 (18.1) 0.25 (0.43) 0 (0) 0.50 (0.87) 0 (0) 0.23 (0.64) 0 (0) 0 (0)
BMI ( Kg / m 2 ) p* < 0.001 p*0.520 p* < 0.001 p* < 0.001 p* 0.032 p* > 0.999 p* > 0.999
<25 296 (89.7) 0.14 (0.35) 0.25 (0.64) 1.88 (0.92) 0.03 (0.18) 0.30 (0.82) 0 (0) 0 (0)
≥ 25 34 (10.3) 0.82 (0.38) 0.23 (0.49) 2.55 (0.82) 0.20 (0.41) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
TUFOT (Months) p*0.027 p* < 0.001 p*0.154 p* < 0.001 p* < 0.001 p* > 0.999 p* > 0.999
6-12 263 (79.7) 0.25 (0.43) 0.03 (0.25) 1.95 (0.52) 0 (0) 0.05 (0.32) 0 (0) 0 (0)
> 12 67 (20.3) 0.15 (0.36) 0.53 (0.82) 1.95 (1.28) 0.11 (0.32) 0.54 (1.07) 0 (0) 0 (0)
DAI p* < 0.001 p* < 0.001 p* < 0.001 p* < 0.001 p* < 0.001 p* > 0.999 p* > 0.999
<30 237 (71.8) 0.07 (0.25) 0.10 (0.37) 1.87 (0.94) 0.07 (0.25) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
≥30 93 (27.7) 0.58 (0.49) 0.62 (0.93) 2.15 (0.88) 0 (0) 0.95 (1.25) 0 (0) 0 (0)
Dental floss p* < 0.001 p*0.138 p* < 0.001 p* < 0.001 p*0.094 p* > 0.999 p* > 0.999
Users 81 (24.5) 0.39 (0.49) 0.24 (0.48) 1.50 (1.56) 0.20 (0.40) 0.12 (0.48) 0 (0) 0 (0)
Non-users 249 (75.5) 0.15 (0.36) 0.25 (0.67) 2.09 (0.53) 0 (0) 0.31 (0.86) 0 (0) 0 (0)
AGE  
330 (100 %) p***0.003 p*** < 0.001 p***0.005 p***0.095 p***0.00 - -
WMGB  
  330 (100 %) p***0.134 p***0.065 p***0.005 p*** < 0.001 p***0.71 - -
  1. FL functional limitation; Php physical pain; Psydisc psychological discomfort; Phydisa physical disability; Psydisa psychological disability; Sdisa social disability; Hand handicap; AGE anterior gingival enlargement; BMI body mass index; TUFOT time under fixed orthodontic treatment; DAI dental aesthetic index; WMGB whole mouth gingival bleeding.
  2. p* = Mann Whitney test; p** = Kruskall Wallis test; p*** = Spearman Correlation.