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Table 5 Unadjusted (RR) and Adjusted (RR*) assessments between independent variables associated to overall OHIP-14 scores

From: Association between gingival bleeding and gingival enlargement and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of subjects under fixed orthodontic treatment: a cross-sectional study

Variables n (%) OHIP-14 Mean (SD) OHIP-14 RR (95% CI) OHIP-14 RR* (95% CI)
Gender   p 0.567 **
Male 159 (48.1) 2.67 (±1.89) 1.00  
Female 171 (51.8) 2.84 (±2.31) 0.95 (0.80 – 1.12)  
Ethnicity   p < 0.001 p < 0.001
White 263 (79.7) 2.48 (±2.13) 1 1
Non-White 67 (20.3) 3.74 (±1.62) 1.50 (1.30 -1.74) 1.29 (1.15 – 1.45)
Age (years)   p < 0.001 **
14-19 162 (49.0) 2.16 (±1.81) 0.62 (0.47 -0.81)  
20-24 121 (36.6) 2.95 (±1.96) 0.84 (0.65 -1.0)  
25-30 47 (14.2) 3.48 (±2.83) 1  
Household Income (Wages)   p < 0.001 p < 0.001
≤ 5 270 (81.8) 3.13 (±2.0) 3.18 (2.09 – 4.84) 1.85 (1.30 – 2.61)
> 5 60 (18.1) 0.98 (±1.61) 1 1
BMI ( Kg / m 2 )   p < 0.001 p 0.033
<25 296 (89.7) 2.61 (±2.10) 1 1
≥ 25 34 (10.3) 3.82 (±1.78) 1.46 (1.22 -1.74) 1.14 (1.01 – 1.29)
TUFOT (Months)   p < 0.001 **
≤ 6-12 263 (79.7) 2.29 (±0.76) 1  
> 12 67 (20.3) 3.31 (±2.96) 1.50 (1.30 – 1.74)  
DAI   p < 0.001 p < 0.001
<30 237 (71.8) 2.12 (±1.58) 1 1
≥30 93 (27.7) 4.31 (±2.43) 2.02 (1.74 – 2.35) 1.32 (1.20 -1.46)
Dental floss   p 0.315  
Users 81 (24.5) 2.48 (±2.76) 1  
Non-users 249 (75.5) 2.82 (±1.83) 1.13 (0.88 – 1.46)  
AGE   p < 0.001 p < 0.001
  330 (100%) __ 3.55 (3.29 – 3.82) 2.83 (2.60 -3.09)
WMGB   p 0.790  
  330 (100%) __ 1.00 (0.99 – 1.00)  
  1. RR rate ratio; AGE Anterior gingival enlargement; BMI body mass index; TUFOT time under orthodontic fixed appliance; DAI dental aesthetic index; WMGB whole mouth gingival bleeding.
  2. *Adjusted by gender, ethnicity, age, Household Income, BMI, TUFOT, DAI, dental floss use, AGE and WMGB.
  3. ** Variables not included in the final multiple model after adjustment RR rate ratio; AGE Anterior gingival enlargement; BMI body mass index; TUFOT time under orthodontic fixed appliance; DAI dental aesthetic index; WMGB whole.