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Table 1 Pearson Chi-Square test results for bivariate relationships between developmental delay status (Predictor Variable) and model covariates for Head Start children (N = 115)

From: Developmental delays and dental caries in low-income preschoolers in the USA: a pilot cross-sectional study and preliminary explanatory model

Variable Total study population Children with no developmental delay Children with developmental delay P-value
  (N = 115) (n = 95) (n = 20)  
  n (%) n (%) n (%)  
Ascribed factors     
Age (years)     P = .46
 3 22 (19.1) 2 (10.0) 20 (21.1)
 4 51 (44.3) 9 (45.0) 42 (44.2)
 5 42 (36.5) 9 (45.0) 33 (34.7)
Sex     P = .01
 Male 57 (49.6) 42 (44.2) 15 (75.0)
 Female 58 (50.4) 53 (55.8) 5 (25.0)
Race     P = .11
 White 56 (48.7) 43 (45.3) 13 (85.0)
 Non-White 59 (51.3) 52 (54.7) 7 (35.0)
Proximal factors     
Communication difficulties   P = .15
 No 96 (87.3) 83 (89.2) 13 (76.5)
 Yes 14 (12.7) 10 (10.8) 4 (23.5)
Dental home   P = .52
 No 10 (8.7) 9 (9.5) 1 (5.0)
 Yes 105 (91.3) 86 (90.5) 19 (95.00
Immediate factors     
Caregiver education level     P = .64
 Less than high school 37 (32.2) 30 (31.6) 7 (35.0)
 High school 39 (33.9) 34 (35.8) 5 (25.0)
 More than high school 39 (33.9) 31 (32.6) 8 (40.0)
Caregiver employment     P = .86
 Unemployed 32 (27.8) 26 (27.4) 6 (30.0)
 In school or training 14 (12.2) 11 (11.6) 3 (15.0)
 Employed 69 (60.0) 58 (61.1) 11 (55.0)
Family structure     P = .62
 Single parent 46 (40.0) 39 (41.1) 7 (35.0)
 Two parents 69 (60.0) 56 (58.9) 13 (65.0)
Child lives in a smoke-free home     P = .18
 No 13 (11.4) 9 (9.6) 4 (20.0)
 Yes 101 (88.6) 85 (90.4) 16 (80.0)
Macro factor     
Lives in a community with fluoridated water     P = .68
 No 40 (36.0) 32 (35.2) 8 (40.0)  
 Yes 71 (64.0) 59 (64.8) 12 (60.0)