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Table 1 Baseline characteristics (N = 132)

From: Effectiveness of lifestyle change plus dental care (LCDC) program on improving glycemic and periodontal status in the elderly with type 2 diabetes

Variables Intervention group Control group p-value*
(n = 66) (%) (n = 66) (%)
Gender    
 Male 23 (34.8) 24 (36.4) 0.856
 Female 43 (65.2) 42 (63.6)  
Age    
 60–69 years 56 (84.8) 55 (83.3) 0.357
 70–79 years 10 (15.2) 9 (13.6)  
 ≥80 years 0 (0.0) 2 (3.1)  
Educational level    
 Illiteracy 2 (3.0) 3 (4.5) 0.790
 Primary school 53 (80.3) 48 (72.8)  
 Secondary school 8 (12.2) 9 (13.7)  
 Vocational school 2 (3.0) 3 (4.5)  
 Bachelor degree 1 (1.5) 3 (4.5)  
BMI (kg/m 2 )    
 Mean (S.D.) 25.30 (3.57) 26.63 (4.37) 0.057
 Min-max 17.95–34.60 18.93–36.50  
Health insurance    
 Universal coverage 55 (83.4) 59 (89.4) 0.643
 Universal coverage (other) 3 (4.5) 2 (3.0)  
 Government/state enterprise officer 7 (10.6) 5 (7.6)  
 No 1 (1.5) 0 (0.0)  
Duration of being diabetes (years)    
 Mean (S.D.) 6.86 (5.16) 8.42 (6.19) 0.118
 Min-max 1–20 1–25  
Smoking    
 Never 57 (86.4) 58 (87.8) 0.474
 Ever 7 (10.6) 4 (6.1)  
 Current smoker 2 (3.0) 4 (6.1)  
  1. p by chi-square test or t-test.
  2. *Statistical significances of difference: p < 0.05.