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Table 3 Association between habits at 12, 18 and 30 months and malocclusions at 30 months after birth in children living in the southeast of Brazil

From: Longitudinal study of habits leading to malocclusion development in childhood

Habit Months after birth Overjet Overbite Open bite Posterior crossbite
χ 2 p value χ 2 p value χ 2 p value χ 2 p value
Pacifier sucking 12 22.8 *<0.0001 nc 0.058 12.9 *0.0003 0.7 0.538
18 22.8 *<0.0001 nc 0.058 12.9 *0.0003 0.7 0.538
30 26.9 *<0.0001 9.3 *0.002 17.1 *<0.0001 1.7 0.18
Finger sucking 12 nc *0.028 nc 0.865 nc *0.0008 1.4 0.4
18 nc *0.010 nc 0.745 nc *0.003 nc 0.12
30 nc *0.017 nc 0.865 nc *0.0008 nc 0.23
Nocturnal mouth breathing 12 nc 0.153 nc 0.715 2.4 0.219 nc *0.012
18 0.4 0.703 nc 0.716 1.6 0.337 nc *0.005
30 1.5 0.34 nc 0.6 1.7 0.308 4.3 0.07
Bottle feeding 12 nc 0.06 nc 0.4 0.9 0.32 4.9 *0.02
18 nc 0.46 nc 0.63 0.3 0.58 1.1 0.29
30 nc 0.61 nc 0.35 nc 0.73 4.2 *0.04
Breastfeeding 12 23.05 *<0.0001 3.07 0.07 14.17 *0.0002 2.7 0.09
18 19.7 *<0.0001 nc 0.2 9.85 *0.001 1.7 0.19
30 nc *0.01 nc 0.91 nc * 0.01 0.7 0.39
  1. (* = statistical significance/nc = discarded χ 2).