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Table 1 Potential strategies to reduce or eliminate bacterial biofilms

From: Biomaterials Approaches to Combating Oral Biofilms and Dental Disease

Process contributing to Net Biofilm Accumulation Potential Interventions
Substratum pre-conditioning Change surface chemistry; non-fouling surfaces vs. signal decorated surfaces
Cell Deposition Maintain sterility
Reversible adhesion Irreversible adhesion Desorption Change surface chemistry or surface topography. Tethered or released toxic agent(s). Base material degradable. External toxic challenge. Specific adhesin blockers
Cell Signaling Signal analogs; receptor blocking.
Cell Metabolism Antibiotic challenge; starvation, chelator challenge; bacteriophage infection, bacteriophage lytic enzymes, device surgical removal
Biofilm Removal Antibiotic challenge; starvation, chelator challenge; bacteriophage infection, bacteriophage lytic enzymes, device surgical removal