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Table 2 The averages and standard deviations of dental care visits and costs for patients who visited dental care through outpatient care†

From: The differences in healthcare utilization for dental caries based on the implementation of water fluoridation in South Korea

Variables Water flouridation P-value Water flouridation P-value†
Yes No Yes No
Number of dental care visits P-value Number of dental care visits P-value Dental care costs (KRW) P-value Dental care costs (KRW) P-value
Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD
Individual variables
Sex
 Male 0.28 ±0.75 <.0001 0.30 ±0.79 <.0001 0.9079 8485.36 ±26,233.38 0.0167 8758.21 ±27,035.59 <.0001 0.6855
 Female 0.29 ±0.77 0.30 ±0.81 8567.78 ±26,234.69 8790.68 ±26,725.42
Age (Years)
 -19 0.38 ±0.90 <.0001 0.42 ±0.95 <.0001 <.0001 12358.18 ±32,803.66 <.0001 12790.26 ±33,474.42 <.0001 0.2527
 20–29 0.26 ±0.72 0.27 ±0.76 7478.72 ±24,358.22 7636.75 ±24,858.38
 30–39 0.22 ±0.65 0.23 ±0.67 6137.69 ±20,783.50 6353.85 ±21,809.12
 40–49 0.22 ±0.63 0.24 ±0.68 6118.31 ±20,360.00 6575.26 ±22,017.51
 50–59 0.25 ±0.69 0.24 ±0.68 7203.43 ±22,910.40 7305.94 ±23,947.33
 60–69 0.26 ±0.77 0.27 ±0.75 7729.45 ±25,167.92 7685.72 ±24,254.82
  < 70 0.26 ±0.76 0.27 ±0.76 7378.33 ±23,917.36 7392.36 ±23,288.21
Income (percentile)
 -10 % (low) 0.25 ±0.74 0.0003 0.27 ±0.81 <.0001 0.2805 7745.45 ±25,837.11 0.0003 7969.37 ±26,342.94 <.0001 0.0164
 11–20 % 0.28 ±0.78 0.29 ±0.81 8170.88 ±26,355.37 8539.98 ±26,535.13
 21–30 % 0.28 ±0.79 0.29 ±0.80 8300.89 ±26,029.00 8530.71 ±26,384.56
 31–40 % 0.26 ±0.70 0.29 ±0.80 7579.31 ±24,080.07 8585.70 ±27,179.61
 41–50 % 0.28 ±0.76 0.30 ±0.80 8685.57 ±27,015.42 8710.41 ±26,762.40
 51–60 % 0.29 ±0.77 0.30 ±0.80 8869.81 ±27,295.76 8910.14 ±27,358.22
 61–70 % 0.30 ±0.78 0.31 ±0.81 8887.83 ±26,420.46 9195.21 ±27,617.53
 71–80 % 0.29 ±0.77 0.32 ±0.81 8868.81 ±26,543.89 9330.15 ±27,794.34
 81–90 % 0.30 ±0.79 0.32 ±0.80 9128.50 ±27,290.42 9128.64 ±27,025.66
  + 91 % (high) 0.28 ±0.72 0.30 ±0.76 8348.43 ±24,746.39 8392.44 ±25,500.98
Types of insurance coverage
 Medical Aid 0.17 ±0.65 <.0001 0.19 ±0.73 <.0001 0.9777 5463.02 ±24,295.15 <.0001 5569.94 ±23,732.00 <.0001 0.6780
 NHI, self-employed insured 0.27 ±0.75 0.29 ±0.79 8349.77 ±25,975.77 8657.48 ±26,710.94
 NHI, employee insured 0.29 ±0.77 0.31 ±0.81 8768.09 ±26,464.81 8971.88 ±27,079.50
Index year
 2003 0.25 ±0.61 <.0001 0.25 ±0.63 <.0001 <.0001 8034.83 ±24,159.19 <.0001 8080.83 ±24,641.98 <.0001 0.0003
 2004 0.25 ±0.63 0.25 ±0.62 8382.93 ±26,010.94 8009.35 ±24,967.53
 2005 0.25 ±0.61 0.25 ±0.63 8297.59 ±25,261.94 8270.24 ±25,774.14
 2006 0.25 ±0.63 0.25 ±0.63 8283.21 ±25,874.99 8310.02 ±26,017.55
 2007 0.29 ±0.78 0.30 ±0.82 8302.10 ±25,361.18 8447.74 ±25,742.34
 2008 0.33 ±0.90 0.34 ±0.93 8527.55 ±25,215.56 8613.98 ±25,737.46
 2009 0.32 ±0.87 0.34 ±0.91 8484.86 ±25,234.96 8797.15 ±26,417.00
 2010 0.30 ±0.83 0.32 ±0.88 8363.59 ±26,338.25 8692.93 ±26,825.06
 2011 0.31 ±0.84 0.34 ±0.90 8821.34 ±27,704.86 9519.33 ±28,487.64
 2012 0.30 ±0.83 0.33 ±0.88 9062.00 ±28,211.94 9642.10 ±29,482.37
 2013 0.29 ±0.79 0.33 ±0.87 9443.44 ±29,389.48 10376.20 ±31,264.12
Dentofacial anomalies
 Yes 1.75 ±1.32 <.0001 1.91 ±1.42 <.0001 0.0774 60991.70 ±60,760.65 <.0001 68584.30 ±65,057.42 <.0001 0.0088
 No 0.28 ±0.76 0.30 ±0.80 8503.58 ±26,182.17 8742.72 ±26,802.56
Disorders of toothe development and eruption
 Yes 1.89 ±1.43 <.0001 1.95 ±1.39 <.0001 0.1953 70958.60 ±56,207.42 <.0001 71028.40 ±54,669.15 <.0001 0.8636
 No 0.28 ±0.75 0.29 ±0.79 8287.70 ±25,760.74 8526.49 ±26,412.60
Total 0.28 ±0.76   0.30 ±0.80   <.0001 8528.51 ±26,234.03   8775.16 ±26,874.15   <.0001
  1. † The results of analysis of covariance to investigate the differences of distribution for continuous variables based on water fluoridation