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Table 4 Mean values for IDAF-S15 (stimulus module) items by gender

From: Translation and validation of the Finnish version of the Index of dental anxiety and fear (IDAF-4C+) among dental students

IDAF-S items All Female Male p
Painful or uncomfortable procedures 2.37 2.44 2.19 0.145
Feeling embarrassed or ashamed 1.35 1.37 1.31 0.562
Not in control of what is happening 1.62 1.68 1.48 0.269
Feeling sick, queasy or disgusted 1.36 1.36 1.37 0.844
Numbness caused by the anaesthetic 1.47 1.53 1.35 0.051
Not knowing what dentist is going to do 1.61 1.68 1.43 0.085
The cost of dental treatment 1.62 1.68 1.50 0.164
Needles or injections 1.97 2.04 1.81 0.167
Gagging or choking 1.56 1.56 1.56 0.888
Having an unsympathetic or unkind dentist 1.90 2.05 1.56 0.007