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Table 4 Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) summary assessment of risk of bias for non-randomized studies included in the systematic review

From: Are there differences in treatment effects between labial and lingual fixed orthodontic appliances? A systematic review and meta-analysis

Quality criteria Selection (4) Comparability (2) Exposure (3) Total (9)
  Is case definition adequate? (1) Representativeness of the cases (1) Selection of controls (1) Definition of controls (1) Comparability on basis of design or analysis (2) Ascertainment of exposure (1) Same method of ascertainment
for cases and controls (1)
Non-response rate (1)  
Gorman and Smith 1991 [9] 5
Soldanova et al. 2012 [7] 7
Deguchi et al. 2015 [8] 7