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Table 2 Residual stain scores of the apically facing thread surfaces for the different instruments and the defects for the surgical approach (a) and non-surgical approach (b)

From: Location of unaccessible implant surface areas during debridement in simulated peri-implantitis therapy

  30° 60° 90°
a) Surgical approach
 Gracey curette 1.31 ± 0.42 A 1.41 ± 0.45 A 1.32 ± 0.38 A
1.00 (0.5) 1.50 (0.5) 1.25 (0.5)
 Ultrasound 1.48 ± 0.41 A 1.34 ± 0.36 A 3.09 ± 1.07 B
1.50 (0.5) 1.50 (0.5) 2.75 (1.5)
 Air powder abrasion 1.25 ± 0.39 A 1.34 ± 0.49 A 2.79 ± 1.18 B
1.00 (0.5) 1.00 (0.5) 2.75 (2.0)
b) Non-surgical approach
 Gracey curette 1.38 ± 0.16 A 1.3 ± 0.15 A 1.1 ± 0.15 CE
1.5 (0.25) 1.25 (0.25) 1.0 (0.25)
 Ultrasound 1.4 ± 0.17 A 1.09 ± 0.17 C 1.09 ± 0.12 CE
1.5 (0.25) 1.0 (0.06) 1.0 (0.25)
 Air powder abrasion 2.82 ± 0.47 B 1.96 ± 0.55 D 2.7 ± 0.7 BF
2.75 (0.656) 1.81 (0.75) 2.5 (0.91)
  1. Means ± standard deviations and medians (interquartile ranges), the latter as second lines in rows
  2. Scores were ranging from one (residual stain >95%) to six (residual stain <5%)
  3. Different capitals indicate groups with statistically significant differences (p < 0.001), as assessed by pairwise Wilcoxon-rank-sum-tests with p-value adjustments for multiple comparisons according to Holm