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Table 2 Characteristics of the included studies

From: Effect of protraction facemask on the temporomandibular joint: a systematic review

Author Inclusion criteria Number Orthopedic force Diagnostic means Observation period Drop outs
Mandall (2010) and Mandall (2012) Anterior crossbite; Skeletal class III PFM/RME (n = 35); Control (n = 38) 400 g, 30°, 14 h/day Cephalometric analysis; Occlusal measurement; TMJ examination 15 m 4
3 y 10
Kurt (2010) Skeletal class III; Angle Class III; Anterior crossbite PFM (n = 17); Control (n = 13) 400 g, 14 h/day RDC/TMD 6 m 0
Baccetti (1998) and Franchi (1998) European-American ancestry; Early or late mixed dentition; Angle Class III PFM (n = 46); Control (n = 32) 400 g, forward and downward, Full-time basis except during meals Cephalometric Analysis 11 ± 4 m 0
Baccetti (2000) European-American ancestry; Early or late mixed dentition; Angle Class III PFM/RME (n = 29); Control (n = 53) 400 g, forward and downward, 14 h/day Cephalometric Analysis Not reported 0
Baccetti (1999) European-American ancestry; Early or late mixed dentition; Angle Class III PFM/RME (n = 23); Control (n = 17) 400 g, forward and downward, Full-time basis except during meals TPS analysis PFM/RME: 1 ± 0.41y control: 1.9 ± 1 y 0
Chang (2006) Chinese ancestry; Maxillary deficiency PFM (n = 30); Control (n = 30) 300-600 g, 12 h/day TPS analysis 9.5 m 0
Franchi (2014) Anterior cross-bite; Angle Class III PFM/RME (n = 25); Control (n = 16) 400-500 g, 30°, 14 h/day TPS analysis 9.3 ± 2.2 y 0
Lee (2016) Skeletal Class III; Maxillary deficiency; Anterior crossbite; Angle Class III PFM (n = 18) 450 g, 15–30°, 16 h/day CBCT 10.8 ± 2.4 m 0
Gallagher (1998) Skeletal class III; Anterior crossbite PFM/SME (n = 22) 300-400 g, forward and downward Cephalometric Analysis 9 m 0
EI (2010) Angle Class III; Maxillary deficiency; No functional anterior cross-bite PFM (n = 18); Control (n = 16) 300-350 g, 20–25°, 14-16 h/day MPI recordings 8.06 ± 1.63 m 0
Gong (2014) Skeletal class III PFM/RME (n = 15) 500 g, 30°, 10 h/day CT Not reported 0
Yao (2001) Skeletal class III; TMD PFM (n = 19) 500 g, 14 h/day Bilateral Xray films of Schuller’s position 10.3 m 0
Ngan (1997) Skeletal class III; Anterior crossbite PFM (n = 10) 380 g, 30°, 12 h/day masticatory muscle pain; EMG activities Not reported 0
  1. PFM protraction facemask therapy, RME rapid maxillary expansion, SME slow maxillary expansion, EMG electromyography; CT computed tomograph, TPS Thin-plate spline, CBCT cone beam computed tomograph, RDC/TMD research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders, MPI mandibular position indicator; m: months, y years