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Table 2 Baseline characteristics of individuals with normal cognition and those who developed cognitive impairment

From: Association between tooth loss and cognitive impairment in community-dwelling older Japanese adults: a 4-year prospective cohort study from the Ohasama study

  Normal cognition (n = 113) Cognitive impairment (n = 27) P-value
Age (mean ± SD) 70.5 ± 4.2 72.3 ± 4.5 0.04
Male (%) 26.6 48.2 0.03
Hypertension (%) 52.2 59.3 0.5
Diabetes (%) 9.7 18.5 0.2
Cerebrovascular/cardiovascular disease (%) 11.5 18.5 0.3
Hypercholesterolemia (%) 61.1 59.3 0.9
Depressive symptoms (%) 8.9 18.5 0.1
BMI (mean ± SD) 23.4 ± 3.0 24.3 ± 4.0 0.2
Current smoker (%) 7.1 7.4 0.9
Current drinker (%) 41.6 29.6 0.3
< 10 years of education (%) 71.7 81.5 0.3
Baseline MMSE score (mean ± SD) 28.0 ± 1.6 26.4 ± 1.2 < 0.0001
Multiple tooth loss (%) 46.0 70.4 0.02
  1. P-values were determined with Student’s t-test or the Wilcoxon rank sum test for continuous variables and the chi-squared test for categorical variables. Multiple tooth loss was defined as having 0–9 remaining teeth
  2. BMI body mass index, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, SD standard deviation