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Table 1 Overview

From: Current state of the art in the use of augmented reality in dentistry: a systematic review of the literature

Author Year Study Design sample size Humans/ Phantom Primary Endpoint Field of Interest
Jiang W. 2018 case-control clinical trial 12 12 rapid prototyping mandibular models 3D printed better accuracy, applicability and efficiency implantology
Murugesan YP. 2018 experimental study age 15 to 70; 6 categories of dental groups humans improved algorithm provides overall acceptable range of accuracy with a shorter operating time dental surgery (operazioni su dente)
Pulijala Y. 2018 Randomized control trial 95 novice surgical residents virtual phantoms iVR experiences improve the knowledge and self-confidence of the surgical residents. a framework is needed. Tech is not available maxillofacial surgery (lefort1) students, learning
Schreurs R. 2018 pilot experimental study 1 skull model 3d printed hard tissue model a novel navigation concept for orbital reconstruction that provides real-time intuitive feedback during insertion of an orbital implant has been presented maxillofacial, orbital implant placement
Won JY. 2017 method description 1 model phantom simple method descrption (already existing software) inferior nerve block anesthesia
Zhou C. 2017 clinical trial 4 osteotomies on two samples dogs In this study, the robot system based on AR promises a precise osteotomy plane even when operated by inexperienced plastic surgeons Mandibular angle split osteotomy (MASO)
Plessas A. 2017 review 16 articles included students combining and alternating the traditional and pioneering simulation methods and feedback may be of benefit to the learners. However, there is insufficient evidence to advise for or against the use educational and preclinic
Llena C. 2018 case/control 41 two groups students on models The AR techniques favoured the gaining of knowledge and skills Cavity preparation
Zhu M. 2017 clinical trial 20 patients on printed models of human patients easy manipulation and high accuracy maxillofacial surgery/reconstruction - nerve position
Wang J. 2017 clinical trial 1 subject 1 phantom mandible and maxillar phantoms (3d printed) and a volunteer simple method and can be integrated with OMS New method in oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS)
Liu WP 2015 experimental clinical trial 1 porcine tongue computed tomography (CBCTA) and magnetic resonance (MR), Ex vivo (EV) porcine tongue phantoms The 5 mm (mean) tool tracking error is not acceptable for clinical use and can be improved through intraoperative fluoroscopy. Experimental results show the feasibility and advantages vascular landmarks for the resection of base of tongue neoplasm for transoral robotic surgery
Suenaga H. 2015 experimental clinical trial 1 subject human displayed 3D-CT images in real space with high accuracy. stereo vision in oral and maxillofacial surgery
Espejo-Trung LC. 2015 blinded clinical trial with questionnaires dental students (n = 28), professors and postgraduate students in dentistry and prosthetics (n = 30), and dentists participating in a continuing education or remedial course in dentistry and/or prosthetics (n = 19). total: 77 resin teeth scanned (XCadCam, Brazil); This study’s methodology enabled the development of a learning object with a high index of acceptance among all groups, regardless of their ability with computers, gender, and age. education
Qu M. 2015 randomized clinical trial 20 patients with hemifacial microsomia 10 randomized and 10 control humans useful approach in mandibular distraction osteogenesis transfer surgical planning to the surgical site in hemifacial microsomia elongment
Wang J. 2014 experimental clinical study 1 phantom A phantom experiment simulating oral and maxillofacial surgery was also performed to evaluate the proposed AR overlay device in terms of the image registration accuracy, 3D image overlay accuracy, and the visual effects of the overlay. The experimental results show satisfactory image registration and image overlay accuracy, and confirm the system usability. Compensating 3D image distortion a novel AR device for 3D image surgical overlay is presented
Badiali G. 2014 experimental phantom trial physical replica of a human skull phantom Our results suggest that the WARM device would be accurate when used to assist in waferless maxillary repositioning during the LeFort 1 orthognathic procedure. Further, our data suggest that the method can be extended to aid the performance of many surgical procedures on the facial skeleton. Also, in vivo testing should be performed to assess system accuracy under real clinical conditions. Le Fort I, OMS
Katić D. 2015 experimental animal study 1 pig pig corpse The system made the surgery easier and showed ergonomical benefits, as assessed by a questionnaire. augmented reality (AR) system for dental implant surgery
Wang J. 2014 experimental phantom study 1 phantom patient phantom The application innovation of this paper is a 3-D image overlay-based AR navigation system for dental surgery. Computer-assisted oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS) matches dental edge
Zinser MJ 2013 clinical in vivo ttrial sixteen adults class 3 humans humans the maxilla can be positioned independently and no intermediate intermaxillary splints are required. The surgeon gets a better feeling for the 3-dimensional nature of the maxilla, although he must adapt to the new technique 3-dimensional contours of the virtually-planned and real-time maxillary positions can be superimposed to augment the surgeon’s perception to 3dimensional cephalometric landmarks
Lin YK 2013 in vitro study 40 osteotomy sites on 4 maxillar and 4 mandibular sites in vitro stereolitho Deviation of implant placement from planned position was significantly reduced by integrating surgical template and augmented reality technology. implant placement
Suenaga H. 2013 experimental clinical study 1 volunteer and 1 plastic model human/phantom an accurate AR system for use in oral and maxillofacial dentistry that provides a real-time, in situ, stereo- scopic visualization of 3D-CT IV images overlaid onto the surgical site with the naked eye. overlaying a three-dimensional computed tomography image on a patient’s surgical area,
Aichert A. 2012 experimental clinical study 1 subject human a novel application of augmented reality in an orthodontics routine procedure. guided bracket placement in orthodontic correction
Bruellmann DD. 2013 experimental in vitro study 126 human teeth human teeth in vitro The realized software shows that observations made in anatomical studies can be exploited to automate real-time detection of root canal orifices and tooth classification reliable detection of root canals
Zhu M. 2011 clinical in vivo ttrial 15 patients humans This study has reported a new and effective way for mandibular angle oblique split osteotomy, and using occlusal splint might be a powerful option for the registration of augmented reality. mandibular angle oblique split osteotomy (MASO) with occlusal splint
Bogdan CM. 2011 descriptive virtual models virtual models project, is to increase the quality of the educational process in dental faculties, by assisting students in learning how to prepare teeth for all-ceramic restorations. e-learning virtual reality-based software system that will be used for the developing skills in grinding teeth, needed in all-ceramic restorations. Virtual laboratory for the students of the dental medicine faculty
Suebnukarn S. 2010 descriptive thirty-two sixth-year dental students virtual models the augmented kinematic feedback can enhance the performance earlier in the skill acquisition and retention sessions haptic VR training system
Wierinck ER. 2007 experimental phantom study Eighteen right-handed volunteers: operative dentists (EXP), the peri- odontologists (PER), and the naïve (NAIV) group simulated patient or manikin with head and dentoform. The VR simulator is a valid and reliable screening device to capture expert performance even after brief training to familiarize the subject with the new environment tooth preparation, manual dexterity training
Mischkowski RA 2006 clinical trial 5 patients humans Augmented reality tools like X-Scope® may be helpful for controlling maxillary translocation in orthognathic surgery. maxillary positioning in orthognathic surgery
Wierinck ER. 2006 experimental in vitro trial 36 dental students first year divide in 3 groups of 12 phantoms VR feedback enhances acquisition and retention of a cavity preparation task on a simulation unit Cavity preparation simulators
Ewers R. 2005 retrospective review of clinical trials 50 telemedically supported treatments. 20 videosequences of arthroscopies of the temporomandibular joint are transmitted via UMTS cellular phones and independently evaluated by 3 experts. humans In many applications telecommunication technology can contribute to a quality improvement in cranio- and maxillofacial surgery because of the global availability of specialized knowledge. computer-assisted navigation technology in augmented reality environments with telecommunication is used for execution of interactive stereotaxic teleconsultation. Arthroscopic videos of the temporomandibular joint and other craniomaxillofacial structures. Orbitozygomatic osteotomies, positioning of the mandibular condyle in orthognathic surgery, insertion of implants, positioning of the maxilla in orthognathic surgery, distraction osteogenesis, arthroscopies of the temporomandibular joint, and operation simulations on stereolithographic models
Nijmeh AD 2005 review of the literature n/a CT, MRI, PET guidance systems are useful tools for navigation of the surgical scene but not a substitute for sound surgical principles and a good knowledge of human anatomy. oral surgery
Wierinck ER. 2005 clinical trial on students 42 dental students models DentSimTM navigation system, was not suitable for manual skill learning in novice dental students. manual dextrity training drilling a geometrical class 1 cavity
Ewers R 2005 review One hundred and fifty-eight operations from 1995 to 2003 humans Our results indicate that the medical benefit is likely to outweight the expenditure of technology with few exceptions positioning of dental implants; arthroscopies of the temporomandibular joint and intraoperative optoelectronical axiography osteotomies of the facial skeleton removal of foreign bodies, image guided biopsies, punctures of the trigeminal ganglion; resection of the temporal bone, tumor resection and reconstruction with calvarial transplant, reconstruction of the orbital floor, positioning of positioning-screws